Initial experience with fecal microbiota transplantation in Clostridium difficile infection - transplant protocol and preliminary results

Ana Ponte, Rolando Pinho, Margarida Mota, Joana Silva, Nuno Vieira, Rosa Oliveira, Teresa Pinto-Pais, Carlos Fernandes, Iolanda Ribeiro, Jaime Rodrigues, Paulo Lopes, Tiago Teixeira, João Carvalho
Revista Española de Enfermedades Digestivas 2015, 107 (7): 402-7

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) constitutes an important cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhea. Recurrence after first-line treatment with antibiotics is high and fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) may be effective for refractory and recurrent CDI. This series aims to describe the efficacy of FMT in the treatment of refractory and recurrent CDI.

METHODS: A prospectively recorded single-centre case series of patients with persistent or recurrent CDI treated with FMT between June 2014 and March 2015 was analyzed. Primary and secondary outcomes were defined as resolution of diarrhea without recurrence of CDI within 2 months after one or more FMT, respectively. A descriptive analysis was performed.

RESULTS: 8 FMT were performed in 6 patients, 3 with refractory CDI and 3 with recurrent CDI. The median age of recipients was 71 years and 66.7% were women. One FMT was delivered through colonoscopy and the remaining 87.5% through esophagogastroduodenoscopy. One upper FMT was excluded due to recurrence of CDI after antibiotic exposure for a respiratory infection. The overall cure rate of FMT was total with lower route and 83.3% with upper route. Primary cure rate was achieved in 83.3% of patients and secondary cure rate was achieved in all patients. Median time to resolution of diarrhea after FMT was 1 day and no complications were reported during follow-up.

CONCLUSION: FMT appears to constitute a safe and effective approach in the management of refractory and recurrent CDI. Difference between primary and secondary cure rates may result of insufficient restoration of intestinal microbiota with a single FMT.

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