Male-to-Female Genital Reassignment Surgery: A Retrospective Review of Surgical Technique and Complications in 60 Patients

Mauricio Raigosa, Stefano Avvedimento, Tai Sik Yoon, Juan Cruz-Gimeno, Guillermo Rodriguez, Joan Fontdevila
Journal of Sexual Medicine 2015, 12 (8): 1837-45

BACKGROUND: Patients with male-to-female gender dysphoria (GD) require multidisciplinary assessment and management. Nowadays, more and more patients decide to undergo genital reassignment surgery (GRS) to have aesthetic and functional external female genitalia. Different techniques of this procedure have been described. Orchiectomy, penile disassembly, creation of a neovaginal cavity, repositioning of urethral meatus, and clitorolabioplasty may be identified as the five major steps in all of these techniques.

METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study of 60 patients who underwent genital reassignment procedure for male-to-female GD at our department between November 2008 and August 2013 with a minimum follow-up of 1 year. Data were collected on surgical technique, postoperative dilations protocol, complications, and functional and aesthetic outcomes. We describe and critically evaluate the surgical technique used in our department.

RESULTS: Follow-up ranged from 14 to 46 months. Two patients developed late neovaginal stricture, and two patients experienced rectovaginal fistulae (one required surgical revision with dermal porcine graft placement). Minor complications occurred in 13 patients and included urethral stenosis, partial wound dehiscence, and minor bleeding. Secondary aesthetic revision surgery was performed in 13 cases.

CONCLUSIONS: GRS can provide good functional and aesthetic outcomes in patients with male-to-female GD. However, despite a careful planning and meticulous surgical technique, secondary procedures are frequently required to improve the function and appearance of the neovagina.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article


You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Trending Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.


Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"