Mortality and complications after aortic bifurcated bypass procedures for chronic aortoiliac occlusive disease

Kim Bredahl, Leif Panduro Jensen, Torben V Schroeder, Henrik Sillesen, Henrik Nielsen, Jonas P Eiberg
Journal of Vascular Surgery 2015, 62 (1): 75-82

OBJECTIVE: Open surgery has given way to endovascular grafting in patients with aortoiliac occlusive disease. The growing use of endovascular grafts means that fewer patients with aortoiliac occlusive disease have open surgery. The declining open surgery caseload challenges the surgeon's operative skills, particularly because open surgery is increasingly used in those patients who are unsuitable for endovascular repair and hence technically more demanding. We assessed the early outcome after aortic bifurcated bypass procedures during two decades of growing endovascular activity and identified preoperative risk factors.

METHODS: Data on patients with chronic limb ischemia were prospectively collected during a 20-year period (1993 to 2012). The data were obtained from the Danish Vascular Registry, assessed, and merged with data from The Danish Civil Registration System.

RESULTS: We identified 3623 aortobifemoral and 144 aortobiiliac bypass procedures. The annual caseload fell from 323 to 106 during the study period, but the 30-day mortality at 3.6% (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.0-4.1) and the 30-day major complication rate remained constant at 20% (95% CI, 18-21). Gangrene (odds ratio [OR], 3.3; 95% CI, 1.7-6.5; P = .005) was the most significant risk factor for 30-day mortality, followed by renal insufficiency (OR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.1-5.8; P = .035) and cardiac disease (OR, 2.1; 95% CI, 1.4-3.1; P < .001). Multiorgan failure, mesenteric ischemia, need for dialysis, and cardiac complications were the most lethal complications, with mortality rates of 94%, 44%, 38%, and 34%, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS: Aortic bifurcated bypass is a high-risk procedure. Although open surgery has increasingly given way to endovascular repair, 30-day outcomes have remained stable during the past decade. Thus, it is still acceptable to consider an aortic bifurcated bypass whenever endovascular management is not feasible.

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