JOURNAL ARTICLE

Right Ventricular Structure and Function in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis with or without Pulmonary Hypertension

Antonello D'Andrea, Anna Stanziola, Enza Di Palma, Maria Martino, Michele D'Alto, Santo Dellegrottaglie, Rosangela Cocchia, Lucia Riegler, Meredyth Vanessa Betancourt Cordido, Maurizia Lanza, Marco Maglione, Veronica Diana, Raffaele Calabrò, Maria Giovanna Russo, Mani Vannan, Eduardo Bossone
Echocardiography 2016, 33 (1): 57-65
26096076

AIMS: To elucidate right ventricular (RV) function in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) with and without pulmonary hypertension (PH) and its relation to other features of the disease.

METHODS AND RESULTS: Clinical evaluation, standard Doppler echo, Doppler myocardial imaging (DMI), and 2D strain echocardiography (STE) of RV septal and lateral walls were performed in 52 IPF patients (66.5 ± 8.5 years; 27 males) and in 45 age- and sex-comparable controls using a commercial US system (MyLab Alpha, Esaote). Pulmonary artery mean pressure (mPAP) was estimated by standard echo Doppler. RV global longitudinal strain (RV GLS) was calculated by averaging RV local strains. The IPF patients were divided into 2 groups by noninvasive assessment of PH: no PH (mPAP<25 mmHg; 36 pts) and PH (mPAP ≥25 mmHg; 16 pts). Left ventricular diameters and ejection fraction were comparable between controls and IPF, while GLS was impaired in IPF (P < 0.01). RV end-diastolic diameters, wall thickness andmPAP were increased in IPF patients with PH. In addition, pulsed DMI detected in PH IPF impaired myocardial RV early diastolic (Em) peak velocity. Also peak systolic RV strain was reduced in basal and middle RV lateral free walls in IPF, as well as RV GLS (P < 0.0001). The impairment in RV wall strain was more evident when comparing controls with the no PH group than comparing the no PH group with the PH group. By multivariate analysis, independent association of RV strain with both six-minute walking test distance (P < 0.001), mPAP (P < 0.0001), as well as with forced vital capacity (FVC) % (P < 0.005) in IPF patients were observed.

CONCLUSIONS: Impaired RV diastolic and systolic myocardial function were present even in IPF patients without PH, which indicates an early impact on RV function and structure in patients with IPF.

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