Palonosetron with aprepitant plus dexamethasone to prevent chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting during gemcitabine/cisplatin in urothelial cancer patients

Hiroshi Kitamura, Atsushi Takahashi, Hiroshi Hotta, Ryuichi Kato, Yasuharu Kunishima, Fumiyasu Takei, Hiroki Horita, Naoya Masumori
International Journal of Urology: Official Journal of the Japanese Urological Association 2015, 22 (10): 911-4

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the appearance of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting, and to compare the antiemetic efficacy of the triple combination of palonosetron, aprepitant and dexamethasone with that of our old regimen using first-generation 5-hydroxytryptamine 3-receptor antagonists and dexamethasone during gemcitabine and cisplatin chemotherapy in patients with advanced urothelial cancer.

METHODS: We carried out a multi-institutional study including 122 patients who received gemcitabine and cisplatin for advanced urothelial cancer between February 2005 and January 2012. Uncontrolled chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting events were identified through records of nausea and vomiting, additional infusion, rescue medications, and/or records of food intake.

RESULTS: First-generation 5-hydroxytryptamine 3-receptor antagonists (ondansetron or granisetron) plus dexamethasone were used for 75 patients (cohort 1), and palonosetron with dexamethasone plus aprepitant for 47 patients (cohort 2). Patients in cohort 2 had significantly higher complete response (defined as no emetic episodes and no rescue medication use) rates than those in cohort 1 during the overall phase in the first cycle (85.7% vs 65.3%, P = 0.012), and all cycles (78.7% vs 50.7%, P = 0.0019) of gemcitabine and cisplatin. Patients in cohort 2 were more likely to achieve more favorable chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting control; that is, a lower grade of nausea, vomiting or anorexia, lower incidence of rescue therapy required, and shorter time to become chemotherapy-induced nausea- and vomiting-free than patients in cohort 1.

CONCLUSIONS: The present results show that palonosetron in combination with aprepitant and dexamethasone is more effective to prevent chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in urothelial cancer patients treated with gemcitabine and cisplatin than first-generation 5-hydroxytryptamine 3-receptor antagonists plus dexamethasone.

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