JOURNAL ARTICLE
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
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The effect of NaCl 0.9% and NaCl 0.45% on sodium, chloride, and acid-base balance in a PICU population.

Jornal de Pediatria 2015 September
OBJECTIVES: To study the effect of two intravenous maintenance fluids on plasma sodium (Na), and acid-base balance in pediatric intensive care patients during the first 24h of hospitalization.

METHODS: A prospective randomized controlled study was performed, which allocated 233 patients to groups: (A) NaCl 0.9% or (B) NaCl 0.45%. Patients were aged 1 day to 18 years, had normal electrolyte concentrations, and suffered an acute insult (medical/surgical).

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURED: change in plasma sodium. Parametric tests: t-tests, ANOVA, X(2) statistical significance level was set at α=0.05.

RESULTS: Group A (n=130): serum Na increased by 2.91 (±3.9)mmol/L at 24h (p<0.01); 2% patients had Na higher than 150 mmol/L. Mean urinary Na: 106.6 (±56.8)mmol/L. No change in pH at 0 and 24h. Group B (n=103): serum Na did not display statistically significant changes. Fifteen percent of the patients had Na<135 mmol/L at 24h. The two fluids had different effects on respiratory and post-operative situations.

CONCLUSIONS: The use of saline 0.9% was associated with a lower incidence of electrolyte disturbances.

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