Metabolic Tumor Volume on 18F-FDG PET/CT Improves Preoperative Identification of High-Risk Endometrial Carcinoma Patients

Jenny A Husby, Bernt C Reitan, Martin Biermann, Jone Trovik, Line Bjørge, Inger J Magnussen, Øyvind O Salvesen, Helga B Salvesen, Ingfrid S Haldorsen
Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine 2015, 56 (8): 1191-8

UNLABELLED: Our objective was to prospectively explore the diagnostic value of (18)F-FDG PET/CT for preoperative staging in endometrial carcinomas and to investigate whether (18)F-FDG PET-specific quantitative tumor parameters reflect clinical and histologic characteristics.

METHODS: Preoperative (18)F-FDG PET/CT was prospectively performed on 129 consecutive endometrial carcinoma patients. Two physicians who did not know the clinical findings or staging results independently reviewed the images, assessing primary tumor, cervical stroma involvement and metastatic spread, and determining maximum and mean standardized uptake value (SUVmax and SUVmean, respectively) for tumor, metabolic tumor volume (MTV), and total lesion glycolysis (TLG). All parameters were analyzed in relation to histomorphologic and clinical tumor characteristics. Receiver-operating-characteristic curves for identification of deep myometrial invasion and lymph node metastases were generated, and MTV cutoffs for predicting deep myometrial invasion and lymph node metastases were calculated.

RESULTS: The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of (18)F-FDG PET/CT for the detection of lymph node metastases were 77%-85%, 91%-96%, and 89%-93%, respectively. SUVmax, SUVmean, MTV, and TLG were significantly related to deep myometrial invasion, presence of lymph node metastases, and high histologic grade (P < 0.015 for all) and independently predicted deep myometrial invasion (P < 0.015) and lymph node metastases (P < 0.025) after adjustment for preoperative histologic risk (based on subtype and grade) in endometrial biopsies. Optimal cutoffs for MTV in predicting deep myometrial invasion (20 mL) and the presence of lymph node metastases (30 mL) yielded odds ratios of 7.8 (P < 0.001) and 16.5 (P = 0.001), respectively.

CONCLUSION: (18)F-FDG PET/CT represents a clinically valuable tool for preoperatively evaluating the presence of lymph node metastases in endometrial carcinoma patients. Applying MTV cutoffs for the prediction of deep myometrial invasion and lymph node metastases may increase diagnostic accuracy and aid preoperative identification of high-risk patients, enabling restriction of lymphadenectomy for patients with a low risk of aggressive disease.

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