JOURNAL ARTICLE

Characterization of a non-approved selective androgen receptor modulator drug candidate sold via the Internet and identification of in vitro generated phase-I metabolites for human sports drug testing

Mario Thevis, Andreas Lagojda, Dirk Kuehne, Andreas Thomas, Josef Dib, Annelie Hansson, Mikael Hedeland, Ulf Bondesson, Tina Wigger, Uwe Karst, Wilhelm Schänzer
Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM 2015 June 15, 29 (11): 991-9
26044265

RATIONALE: Potentially performance-enhancing agents, particularly anabolic agents, are advertised and distributed by Internet-based suppliers to a substantial extent. Among these anabolic agents, a substance referred to as LGD-4033 has been made available, comprising the core structure of a class of selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs).

METHODS: In order to provide comprehensive analytical data for doping controls, the substance was obtained and characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) and liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization high resolution/high accuracy tandem mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-HRMS). Following the identification of 4-(2-(2,2,2-trifluoro-1-hydroxyethyl)pyrrolidin-1-yl)-2-(trifluoromethyl)benzonitrile, the substance was subjected to in vitro metabolism studies employing human liver microsomes and Cunninghamella elegans (C. elegans) preparations as well as electrochemical metabolism simulations.

RESULTS: By means of LC/ESI-HRMS, five main phase-I metabolites were identified as products of liver microsomal preparations including three monohydroxylated and two bishydroxylated species. The two most abundant metabolites (one mono- and one bishydroxylated product) were structurally confirmed by LC/ESI-HRMS and NMR. Comparing the metabolic conversion of 4-(2-(2,2,2-trifluoro-1-hydroxyethyl)pyrrolidin-1-yl)-2-(trifluoromethyl)benzonitrile observed in human liver microsomes with C. elegans and electrochemically derived metabolites, one monohydroxylated product was found to be predominantly formed in all three methodologies.

CONCLUSIONS: The implementation of the intact SARM-like compound and its presumed urinary phase-I metabolites into routine doping controls is suggested to expand and complement existing sports drug testing methods.

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