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Psychosis.

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Psychosis is a common and functionally disruptive symptom of many psychiatric, neurodevelopmental, neurologic, and medical conditions and an important target of evaluation and treatment in neurologic and psychiatric practice. The purpose of this review is to define psychosis, communicate recent changes to the classification of and criteria for primary psychotic disorders described in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), and summarize current evidence-based approaches to the evaluation and management of primary and secondary psychoses.

RECENT FINDINGS: The DSM-5 classification of and criteria for primary psychotic disorders emphasize that these conditions occur along a spectrum, with schizoid (personality) disorder and schizophrenia defining its mild and severe ends, respectively. Psychosis is also identified as only one of several dimensions of neuropsychiatric disturbance in these disorders, with others encompassing abnormal psychomotor behaviors, negative symptoms, cognitive impairments, and emotional disturbances. This dimensional approach regards hallucinations and delusions as arising from neural systems subserving perception and information processing, thereby aligning the neurobiological framework used to describe and study such symptoms in primary psychotic disorders with those used to study psychosis associated with other neurologic conditions.

SUMMARY: This article provides practicing neurologists with updates on current approaches to the diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment of primary and secondary psychoses.

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