Quantitative evaluation of maxillary interradicular bone with cone-beam computed tomography for bicortical placement of orthodontic mini-implants

Lei Yang, Feifei Li, Meng Cao, Hong Chen, Xi Wang, Xuepeng Chen, Le Yang, Weiran Gao, Joseph F Petrone, Yin Ding
American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics 2015, 147 (6): 725-37

INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to propose a protocol for safe bicortical placement of mini-implants by measuring the interradicular spaces of the maxillary teeth and the bone quality.

METHODS: Cone-beam computed tomography data were obtained from 50 adults. Three-dimensional reconstructions and measurements were made with SimplantPro software (Materialise, Leuven, Belgium). For each interradicular site, the bone thicknesses and interradicular distances at the planes 1.5, 3, 6, and 9 mm above the cementoenamel junction were measured. Standard bone units were defined to evaluate the influences of bone density and the different placement patterns on the stability of the mini-implants.

RESULTS: The safe interradicular sites in the maxilla for bicortical placement of 1.5-mm-diameter mini-implants were in all planes between the first and second premolars, and between the second premolar and the first molar. The safe palatal sites were between the first and second molars, and the safe labial sites of the 9-mm plane were between the central incisors, and between the lateral incisor and the canine. The safe buccal sites of the 6- and 9-mm planes were between the first and second molars, and the safe buccal sites of the 3-, 6-, and 9-mm planes were between the canine and the first premolar. Most bone thicknesses were from 8 to 12 mm. The optimal placement angle between the second premolar and the first molar was 58°. Bicortical placement could have more standard bone units than unicortical placement in the maxilla.

CONCLUSIONS: Bicortical placement would be more stable in the maxilla. For the site between the molars, special care should be taken at a plane higher than 6 mm to prevent maxillary sinus penetration. The most favorable interradicular area in the maxilla was between the second premolar and the first molar.

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