Prebiopsy Multiparametric Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Prostate Cancer Diagnosis in Biopsy-naive Men with Suspected Prostate Cancer Based on Elevated Prostate-specific Antigen Values: Results from a Randomized Prospective Blinded Controlled Trial

Panu P Tonttila, Juha Lantto, Eija Pääkkö, Ulla Piippo, Saila Kauppila, Eveliina Lammentausta, Pasi Ohtonen, Markku H Vaarala
European Urology 2016, 69 (3): 419-25

BACKGROUND: Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MP-MRI) may improve the detection of clinically significant prostate cancer (PCa).

OBJECTIVE: To compare MP-MRI transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-fusion targeted biopsy with routine TRUS-guided random biopsy for overall and clinically significant PCa detection among patients with suspected PCa based on prostate-specific antigen (PSA) values.

DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: This institutional review board-approved, single-center, prospective, randomized controlled trial (April 2011 to December 2014) included 130 biopsy-naive patients referred for prostate biopsy based on PSA values (PSA <20 ng/ml or free-to-total PSA ratio ≤0.15 and PSA <10 ng/ml). Patients were randomized 1:1 to the MP-MRI or control group. Patients in the MP-MRI group underwent prebiopsy MP-MRI followed by 10- to 12-core TRUS-guided random biopsy and cognitive MRI/TRUS fusion targeted biopsy. The control group underwent TRUS-guided random biopsy alone.

INTERVENTION: MP-MRI 3-T phased-array surface coil.

OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: The primary outcome was the number of patients with biopsy-proven PCa in the MP-MRI and control groups. Secondary outcome measures included the number of positive prostate biopsies and the proportion of clinically significant PCa in the MP-MRI and control groups. Between-group analyses were performed.

RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: Overall, 53 and 60 patients were evaluable in the MP-MRI and control groups, respectively. The overall PCa detection rate and the clinically significant cancer detection rate were similar between the MP-MRI and control groups, respectively (64% [34 of 53] vs 57% [34 of 60]; 7.5% difference [95% confidence interval (CI), -10 to 25], p=0.5, and 55% [29 of 53] vs 45% [27 of 60]; 9.7% difference [95% CI, -8.5 to 27], p=0.8). The PCa detection rate was higher than assumed during the planning of this single-center trial.

CONCLUSIONS: MP-MRI/TRUS-fusion targeted biopsy did not improve PCa detection rate compared with TRUS-guided biopsy alone in patients with suspected PCa based on PSA values.

PATIENT SUMMARY: In this randomized clinical trial, additional prostate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) before prostate biopsy appeared to offer similar diagnostic accuracy compared with routine transrectal ultrasound-guided random biopsy in the diagnosis of prostate cancer. Similar numbers of cancers were detected with and without MRI.

TRIAL REGISTRATION: identifier: NCT01357512.

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