[Metabolic complications of obesity during adolescence, particularly regarding elevated uric acid levels]

László Ságodi, Viktória Fehér, Emőke Kiss-Tóth, Andrea Almási, László Barkai
Orvosi Hetilap 2015 May 31, 156 (22): 888-95

INTRODUCTION: Obesity is a social problem worldwide that leads to several diseases, including metabolic syndrome, hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. It is known that hyperuricemia in adults may be associated with these disorders.

AIM: The aim of the authors was to investigate the frequency of metabolic syndrome and hyperuricemia and their relationship among obese adolescents.

METHOD: This was a cross-sectional study. The authors analysed the data of 162 overweight or obese adolescents (100 boys and 62 girls) who were previously investigated in a paediatric endocrinology consultation. Anthropometric and metabolic parameters were evaluated in all subjects. Healthy, age-matched, non obese girls (n = 20) and boys (n = 26) were used as controls. The age of overweight or obese boys was: 12 ± 2.1 and overweight or obese girls was 11 ± 2.5 years. In the control group the age of boys was 12.9 ± 2.5 years and the age of girls was 13.2 ± 1.6 years. Linear regression was used to evaluate associations between uric acid and clinical and laboratory findings associated with metabolic syndrome.

RESULTS: Obese or overweight subjects had greater BMI SDS (boys, 3.4 ± 1.3 vs 0.05 ± 0.4 in controls, p<0.0001; girls, 3.75 ± 1.4 vs 0.72 ± 0.9 in controls, p = 0.0001), waist circumference (boys, 90.1 ± 9.2 vs 82.3 ± 6.4 cm in controls; girls, 90.2 ± 8.6 vs 78.1 ± 7.2 cm in controls, p<0.001), higher systolic blood pressure (boys, 125 ± 14.3 vs 118.2 ± 10.8 mmHg in controls, p = 0.02; girls, 125.8 ± 11.8 vs 119.8 ± 8.8 mmHg in controls, p<0.01), diastolic blood pressure (boys, 78.4 ± 9.1 vs 71.2 ± 8.0 mmHg in controls, p = 0.0003; girls, 76.45 ± 7.2 vs 73.2 ± 6.3 mmHg in controls, p = 0.0453). The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 45/162 (27.8%) and the prevalence of hyperuricemia was 62/162 (38.3%). Of the 45 subjects with metabolic syndrome, 30 (66.7%) had hyperuricemia.

CONCLUSIONS: It can be concluded that hyperuricemia is strongly associated with metabolic syndrome. The high concentration of uric acid predicts cardiovascular risk in adulthood. It is important for paediatricians to determine and assess uric acid levels in overweight or obese adolescents.

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