JOURNAL ARTICLE

Oxygen-glucose deprivation and reoxygenation as an in vitro ischemia-reperfusion injury model for studying blood-brain barrier dysfunction

Himakarnika Alluri, Chinchusha Anasooya Shaji, Matthew L Davis, Binu Tharakan
Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE 2015 May 7, (99): e52699
25992584
Ischemia-Reperfusion (IR) injury is known to contribute significantly to the morbidity and mortality associated with ischemic strokes. Ischemic cerebrovascular accidents account for 80% of all strokes. A common cause of IR injury is the rapid inflow of fluids following an acute/chronic occlusion of blood, nutrients, oxygen to the tissue triggering the formation of free radicals. Ischemic stroke is followed by blood-brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction and vasogenic brain edema. Structurally, tight junctions (TJs) between the endothelial cells play an important role in maintaining the integrity of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). IR injury is an early secondary injury leading to a non-specific, inflammatory response. Oxidative and metabolic stress following inflammation triggers secondary brain damage including BBB permeability and disruption of tight junction (TJ) integrity. Our protocol presents an in vitro example of oxygen-glucose deprivation and reoxygenation (OGD-R) on rat brain endothelial cell TJ integrity and stress fiber formation. Currently, several experimental in vivo models are used to study the effects of IR injury; however they have several limitations, such as the technical challenges in performing surgeries, gene dependent molecular influences and difficulty in studying mechanistic relationships. However, in vitro models may aid in overcoming many of those limitations. The presented protocol can be used to study the various molecular mechanisms and mechanistic relationships to provide potential therapeutic strategies. However, the results of in vitro studies may differ from standard in vivo studies and should be interpreted with caution.

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