Acute motor axonal neuropathy in a patient with prolonged CD4 depletion due to HIV: a local variant of macrophage activation syndrome?

Christopher Dardis
Oxford Medical Case Reports 2015, 2015 (2): 200-2
Acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy or Guillain-Barré syndrome is well recognized as a presenting feature of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) seroconversion and, to a lesser extent, as a complication of HIV infection, particularly immune reconstitution. Acute motor axonal neuropathy (AMAN) is much rarer in this setting. A case is presented of acute motor neuropathy, with features most consistent with AMAN in the setting of congenital HIV and prolonged non-compliance with antiretroviral treatment. The case throws new light on the pathogenesis of this condition. Macrophage activation is proposed as fundamental; the patient was predisposed by HIV as well as the use of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor and AMAN was then precipitated by a bacterial infection.

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