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Complete atrioventricular block after percutaneous device closure of perimembranous ventricular septal defect: A single-center experience on 1046 cases

Yuan Bai, Xu-Dong Xu, Chang-Yong Li, Jia-Qi Zhu, Hong Wu, Shao-Ping Chen, Feng Chen, Xiao-Hua You, Xian-Xian Zhao, Yong-Wen Qin
Heart Rhythm: the Official Journal of the Heart Rhythm Society 2015, 12 (10): 2132-40

BACKGROUND: Complete atrioventricular block (cAVB) has been deemed a rare complication after transcatheter closure for ventricular septal defect (VSD). However, this serious event appears to be underrecognized and is worth being investigated further.

OBJECTIVES: To determine the incidence and predisposing factors of cAVB associated with closure of VSD using a modified double-disk occluder (MDO).

METHODS: From December 21, 2001 to December 31, 2014, 1046 patients with perimembranous ventricular septal defect underwent percutaneous closure using the MDO. Electrocardiography was evaluated before the procedure, within 1 week after the procedure, and then at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months and every year thereafter. Other baseline and procedural parameters were also evaluated and a comparison between patients requiring pacemakers and those not suffering from cAVB was done.

RESULTS: cAVB occurred in 17 patients (1.63%) after the procedure. Of the 17 patients, 8 underwent permanent pacemaker (PPM) implantation. The cAVB occurred within 30 days after the procedure in 14 patients and after 1 year in 3 patients. In comparison patients aged ≤18 years, patients aged >18 years were more prone to cAVB (P = .025). Logistic regression revealed no significant parameter to predict later requirement for PPM.

CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of cAVB after transcatheter closure of VSD was acceptable, as part of the cAVB population recovered after administration of corticosteroid and application of a temporary pacemaker. Late cAVB (>1 year) appears to make it more difficult to restore normal conduction block. Because of the recurrence of cAVB, life-long follow-up with periodic electrocardiography examination may be mandatory.

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