Arming oncolytic viruses to leverage antitumor immunity

Tanja D de Gruijl, Axel B Janssen, Victor W van Beusechem
Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy 2015, 15 (7): 959-71

INTRODUCTION: Over the past decade, the cytolytic capabilities of oncolytic viruses (OVs), exploited to selectively eliminate neoplastic cells, have become secondary to their use to elicit a tumor-directed immune response.

AREAS COVERED: Here, based on an NCBI-PubMed literature survey, we review the efforts undertaken to arm OVs in order to improve therapeutic antitumor responses upon administration of these agents. Specifically, we explore the different options to modulate immune suppression in the tumor microenvironment (TME) and to facilitate the generation of effective antitumor responses that have been investigated in conjunction with OVs in recent years.

EXPERT OPINION: Their induction of immunogenic tumor cell death and association with pro-inflammatory signals make OVs attractive immunotherapeutic modalities. The first promising clinical results with immunologically armed OVs warrant their further optimization and development. OVs should be modified to avoid detrimental effects of pre-existent anti-OV immunity as well as for increased tumor targeting and selectivity, so as to ultimately allow for systemic administration while achieving local immune potentiation and tumor elimination in the TME. In particular, a combination of trans-genes encoding bispecific T-cell engagers, immune checkpoint blockers and antigen-presenting cell enhancers will remove suppressive hurdles in the TME and allow for optimal antitumor efficacy of armed OVs.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article


You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Related Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.


Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"