Pregnancy is a Risk Factor for Pancreatitis After Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography in a National Cohort Study

Sumant Inamdar, Tyler M Berzin, Divyesh V Sejpal, Douglas K Pleskow, Ram Chuttani, Mandeep S Sawhney, Arvind J Trindade
Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology 2016, 14 (1): 107-14

BACKGROUND & AIMS: There are limited data on the safety of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) during pregnancy, only data from observational series (approximately 350 cases) have been published. We aimed to evaluate the safety of ERCP in pregnant women by evaluating a large nationwide database.

METHODS: We performed a retrospective matched-cohort study, collecting data from the National Inpatient Sample from 2008 through 2009. We compared data from pregnant women who underwent ERCP (n = 907) with those from nonpregnant women who underwent ERCP (controls, n = 2721). Complications related to ERCP were measured against the matched controls. Obstetric and fetal complications were measured against the national average of all obstetric admissions.

RESULTS: ERCP-associated complications of perforation, infection, and bleeding were infrequent in both cohorts (P > .05). Post-ERCP pancreatitis (PEP) occurred in 12% of pregnant women and in 5% of controls (P < .001). There was a significantly lower rate of PEP in teaching hospitals (9.6%) than in nonteaching hospitals (14.6%; P < .001). The adjusted odds ratio for developing PEP among pregnant women vs controls was 2.8 (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.1-3.8). This risk of PEP was higher among nonteaching hospitals (adjusted odds ratio, 3.5; 95% CI, 2.3-5.2) than teaching hospitals (adjusted odds ratio, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.6-3.9).

CONCLUSIONS: Pregnancy is an independent risk factor for PEP; PEP and PEP among pregnant women are each more prevalent in community hospitals than teaching centers. Proper precautions therefore should be considered for pregnant women undergoing ERCP, including transfer to a tertiary care center if appropriate.

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