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Palonosetron in combination with 1-day versus 3-day dexamethasone to prevent nausea and vomiting in patients receiving paclitaxel and carboplatin

Naoto Furukawa, Seiji Kanayama, Yasuhito Tanase, Fuminori Ito
Supportive Care in Cancer 2015, 23 (11): 3317-22

PURPOSE: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of palonosetron (PAL) and dexamethasone (DEX) on day 1 only in patients with gynecologic cancer receiving paclitaxel combined with carboplatin (TC). The primary endpoint was to evaluate the complete response (CR) rate in the delayed phase.

METHODS: This study was a randomized phase 2. Regardless of assignment to either study arm, all patients received an intravenous prophylactic regimen of DEX (20 mg) within 15 min and then an intravenous dose of PAL (0.75 mg) as a bolus given 30 min before initiation of TC on day 1. Patients in the DEX 1-day group received no additional DEX on days 2 and 3. Patients in the DEX 3-day group received DEX (8 mg) orally on days 2 and 3.

RESULTS: Eighty-two patients had evaluable data on the primary outcome. The CR rates in the delayed phase between the two groups were not statistically significantly different (3-day group, 76.9 % [30/39]; 1-day group 69.8 % [30/43]; p = 0.4652). The frequency of constipation and insomnia which were antiemetic treatment-related adverse events was similar between two groups, and no serious adverse events occurred.

CONCLUSIONS: Administration of a combination of PAL and DEX 1 day may prevent chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) in the delayed phase for TC as well as administration of DEX 3 days. Further evaluation of the antiemetic regimen of combination of PAL and DEX 1 day for TC is warranted in future phase 3 trials.


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