Study of rolapitant, a novel, long-acting, NK-1 receptor antagonist, for the prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) due to highly emetogenic chemotherapy (HEC)

Bernardo Rapoport, Daniel Chua, Allen Poma, Sujata Arora, Yan Wang, Luis Enrique Fein
Supportive Care in Cancer 2015, 23 (11): 3281-8

PURPOSE: Rolapitant is a novel, long-acting neurokinin-1 (NK-1) receptor antagonist. This study evaluated the safety and efficacy of four different doses of rolapitant for prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) due to highly emetogenic chemotherapy (HEC).

METHODS: This randomized, double-blind, active-controlled, global study was conducted in patients receiving cisplatin-based chemotherapy ≥70 mg/m(2). Patients received a 9, 22.5, 90, or 180 mg oral dose of rolapitant or placebo with ondansetron and dexamethasone on day 1 of chemotherapy. The primary end point was complete response (CR; no emesis and no use of rescue medication) in the overall (0 to 120 h) phase of cycle 1. Other assessments were CR in delayed (24-120 h) and acute (0-24 h) phases, no emesis, no significant nausea, and no nausea.

RESULTS: Four hundred fifty-four patients were randomized. All doses of rolapitant improved CR with the greatest benefit observed with rolapitant 180 mg vs. active control in the overall phase (62.5 and 46.7 %, p = 0.032) and in the acute (87.6 vs. 66.7 %, p = 0.001) and delayed (63.6 vs. 48.9 %, p = 0.045) phases. Rates for no emesis and no significant nausea were significantly (p < 0.05) higher with rolapitant 180 mg vs. active control in the overall, acute, and delayed phases. Treatment-related adverse events were largely considered related to the chemotherapy and included constipation, headache, fatigue, and dizziness which were mostly mild or moderate and were similar across treatment groups.

CONCLUSION: All doses of rolapitant were well tolerated and showed greater CR rates than active control. Rolapitant 180 mg demonstrated significant clinical efficacy for preventing CINV in the overall, delayed, and acute phases for patients receiving HEC.

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