Rhabdomyolysis: a genetic perspective

Renata Siciliani Scalco, Alice R Gardiner, Robert Ds Pitceathly, Edmar Zanoteli, Jefferson Becker, Janice L Holton, Henry Houlden, Heinz Jungbluth, Ros Quinlivan
Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases 2015 May 2, 10: 51
Rhabdomyolysis (RM) is a clinical emergency characterized by fulminant skeletal muscle damage and release of intracellular muscle components into the blood stream leading to myoglobinuria and, in severe cases, acute renal failure. Apart from trauma, a wide range of causes have been reported including drug abuse and infections. Underlying genetic disorders are also a cause of RM and can often pose a diagnostic challenge, considering their marked heterogeneity and comparative rarity.In this paper we review the range of rare genetic defects known to be associated with RM. Each gene has been reviewed for the following: clinical phenotype, typical triggers for RM and recommended diagnostic approach. The purpose of this review is to highlight the most important features associated with specific genetic defects in order to aid the diagnosis of patients presenting with hereditary causes of recurrent RM.

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