Varicose veins of lower extremities, hemodynamics and treatment methods.
Chronic venous insufficiency is one of the most common disorders of the vascular system, affecting approximately 50% of adults. If left untreated it can lead to a number of complications, including venous ulceration and venous thrombosis. This review paper outlines the epidemiology and ethiopathogenesis of the disease with regard to hemodynamics and microcirculation disturbances. It describes the medical treatment as well as the traditional surgical approach to varicose veins (with several modifications of this technique), and its limitations and contraindications. Furthermore, it discusses a number of new, minimally invasive treatment methods, namely thermal in form (radiofrequency ablation, endovenous laser ablation, steam ablation) and nonthermal (sclerotherapy, echosclerotherapy, Clarivein, Sapheon). For each method, there is a brief historical overview, a description of its mechanism of action, and its indications and limitations. The results of comparative studies on individual treatment methods as well as meta-analyses on this topic are briefly discussed. This paper highlights the progressive trend towards minimally invasive methods and attempts to predict the further development.
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