Neurological outcomes after extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation in patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: a retrospective observational study in a rural tertiary care center

Katsunori Mochizuki, Hiroshi Imamura, Tomomi Iwashita, Kazufumi Okamoto
Journal of Intensive Care 2014, 2 (1): 33

BACKGROUND: In a rural region with few medical resources, we have promoted the strategy that if an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) patient is likely reversible, he or she should be transported directly from the scene of cardiac arrest to the only tertiary care center where extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (ECPR) is readily available. We investigated 1-month survival and neurological outcomes after ECPR in OHCA patients at this center.

METHODS: We implemented a retrospective review of OHCA patients of heterogeneous origin in whom ECPR was performed. Demographic characteristics, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, ECPR details, and neurological outcomes were evaluated. Cerebral performance categories were used to assign each patient to favorable or unfavorable outcome groups.

RESULTS: Fifty OHCA patients underwent ECPR. Presumed causes of OHCA were cardiac etiology in 32 patients, accidental hypothermia in 7 patients, and other causes in 11 patients. Overall, 13 patients (26%) survived and 10 patients (20%) had favorable outcomes. Of the 32 patients with OHCA of cardiac origin, 5 patients (16%) had favorable outcomes. Of the seven patients with OHCA of hypothermic origin, five patients (71%) had favorable outcomes. No clinically reliable predictors to identify ECPR candidates were found. However, all nine OHCA patients over 70 years of age had unfavorable outcomes (P = 0.224). In addition, all seven patients who satisfied the basic life support termination-of-resuscitation rule had unfavorable outcomes (P = 0.319).

CONCLUSIONS: ECPR can be a useful means to rescue OHCA patients who are unresponsive to conventional cardiopulmonary resuscitation in a rural tertiary care center, in a manner similar to that observed in the urban regions.

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