[Drug resistance and status of infection of Acinetobacter baumannii in burn intensive care unit during 3 years]

Bin Chen, Xiaojian Li, Zhi Zhang, Xuhui Zhang, Zhongyuan Deng, Xiaomin Zhong, Wenbin Tang, Changling Liu, Wenjuan Cao
Zhonghua Shao Shang za Zhi, Zhonghua Shaoshang Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Burns 2015, 31 (1): 21-4

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the detection, drug resistance, and status of infection of Acinetobacter baumannii (AB) in burn ICU during 3 years.

METHODS: A total of 2 010 specimens of wound secretion, blood, venous catheter attachment, sputum, stool and urine were collected from 505 burn patients hospitalized in our burn ICU from January 2011 to December 2013, and bacterial culture was performed. Pathogens were identified by automatic microorganism identifying and drug sensitivity analyzer. Drug resistance of all the obtained AB to 16 antibiotics commonly used in clinic, including cefoperazone/sulbactam, polymyxin, etc., was tested with K-B paper disk diffusion method. Patients with AB infection were ascertained. The WHONET 5.6 software was used to analyze the distribution of pathogens during 3 years, the isolation of AB with different sources and the status of drug resistance of AB to 16 antibiotics each year, and the status of patients with AB infection, and their outcome.

RESULTS: A total of 961 strains of pathogens were isolated, among which 185 (19.25%) strains were Gram positive cocci, 728 (75.75%) strains were Gram negative bacilli, and 48 (4.99%) strains were fungi. A total of 172 strains of AB were isolated, ranking the second place among all the detected pathogens, with 67 (38.95%) strains from wound secretion, 11 (6.40%) strains from blood, 23 (13.37%) strains from venous catheter attachment, and 71 (41.28%) strains from sputum, no AB strain was isolated from feces or urine. The AB strains were found sensitive to polymyxin and with relatively low drug resistance rate to minocycline, while the drug resistance rates were over 80.0% to the other 14 antibiotics commonly used in clinic in 2013. AB culture of wound secretion was positive in 27 patients. Among them, 7 patients suffered from wound infection, and the wound infection was caused by AB in 1 out of the 7 patients. AB culture of blood was positive in 7 patients. Among them, 3 patients suffered from bloodstream infection, and the infection was due to AB invasion in 1 out of the 3 patients. AB culture of venous catheter attachment was positive in 20 patients. Among them, 8 patients suffered from bloodstream infection, and the infection was due to AB invasion in 1 out of the 8 patients. AB culture of sputum was positive in 35 patients. Among them, 13 patients suffered from ventilatory associated pneumonia, and 2 out of the 13 patients were diagnosed as AB infection. A total of 69 patients were AB culture positive, among them 64 patients were cured, 2 patients were transferred to other hospitals, and 3 patients died, with the mortality rate of 4.35%.

CONCLUSIONS: AB in our burn ICU has a high detection rate and extensive drug resistance in above-mentioned 3 years. However, AB was mainly colonized in patients with extensive burns with a low mortality rate.

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