Assessment of perioperative, early, and late postoperative complications of the inside-out transobturator tape procedure in the treatment of stress urinary incontinence.

M Bozkurt, A E Yumru, S Salman
Clinical and Experimental Obstetrics & Gynecology 2015, 42 (1): 82-9

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the complications of urinary incontinence surgery with transobturator tape (TVT-O) system and to describe its diagnosis and management.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 156 patients who were diagnosed as having stress incontinence and mixed incontinence with stress predominance underwent a TOT operation under spinal anesthesia by one surgeon or two surgeons (MB, AEY) from the team. TVT-obturator inside out material was used in the operation. Urodynamic tests and pad tests were done on all the patients. This is a prospective and retrospective study of the complications of TVT-O. The operation was performed under regional anesthesia, as described by Deval et al. Patients were excluded from the study if they had been operated under general or local anesthesia, had undergone any vaginal operations except for anterior repair (cystocele), wanted to have a baby, had severe systemic diseases or had been diagnosed as having urge incontinence in urodynamic tests. These situations may affect the rate of complications, the authors also excluded slings that had materials other than monofilament polypropylene, and patients who were suspected of having neurologic bladder conditions. The bladder and urethra were evaluated using cystoscopy. The durations of the TOT procedure, cystoscopy, and if performed, the cystocele operation, were recorded. Perioperative, early, and late postoperative complications were analyzed by follow-up visits (after two months to four years).

RESULTS: Of the 156 patients included in the study, 100 (64.1%) had pure stress urinary incontinence and 56 (35.9%) had mixed incontinence, 20 (12.8%) had previous incontinence surgery. The mean duration of follow up was 30.3 ± 7.4 (range 17-42) months. The mean age of the patients was found to be 48.43 ± 6.24 years (range 42-68). The mean parity of the patients was 5.24 ± 2.86 (range 2-13), and mean body mass index was found to be 23.7 ± 4.8. Mean maximum detrusor pressure was 10.30 ± 4.08 and the mean ALP value was 80.80 ± 25.57. Mean operative time was found to be 13.8 ± 5.16 min in patients who underwent only TOT and TOT-anterior repair. Vaginal injury including to the lateral fornix (4.4%), hemorrhaging of more than 200 ml (3.2%), vascular damage (1.9%), hematoma on the leg (1.9%), hemorrhaging of more than 500 ml (0.064%), and bladder perforation (1.2%) were detected as perioperative complications. Urethral injury and perioperative nerve and intestinal injury did not occur. The most common complication in early postoperative period was inguinal pain extending the legs (30.7%), followed by headaches (23.7%), fever (12.8%), urinary tract infection (5.7%), and urinary retention (3.2%), respectively. Late postoperative complications included vaginal erosion (4.4%), de novo urge incontinence (8.9%), de novo dyspareunia (7.1%), perineal pain (4.4%), and worsening urgency (8.9%).

CONCLUSION: Although the TVT-O technique is a minimal invasive surgery method applied to treat the urinary incontinence surgically, it does not imply that it is a complication-free surgical procedure. Despite the low incidence of intraoperative complications, there is a mild risk of early and late postoperative complications. Fortunately these complications can be taken under control by either conservative and simple medical treatments or surgical procedures.

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