JOURNAL ARTICLE
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Neuroimaging experience in pediatric Horner syndrome.

Pediatric Radiology 2015 September
BACKGROUND: Horner syndrome in children is rare. The frequency and spectrum of malignancy as the cause of Horner syndrome in children remains unclear. Also unclear is whether the imaging work-up should include the entire oculo-sympathetic pathway or should be more targeted. In addition, the value of cross-sectional angiographic imaging in Horner syndrome is uncertain.

OBJECTIVE: To review imaging pathology in a cohort of children with Horner syndrome at a major academic pediatric medical center.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: We reviewed a 22-year period of CT and MR imaging studies in children with a clinical diagnosis of Horner syndrome referred for imaging.

RESULTS: We found 38 patients who fulfilled study criteria of Horner syndrome and 6/38 had relevant imaging findings: 2/6 etiologies were neoplastic (congenital neuroblastoma and central astrocytoma), 1/6 had a vascular abnormality (hypoplastic carotid artery), 1/6 had maldevelopment (Chiari I malformation), and 2/6 had inflammatory/traumatic etiology (viral cervical lymphadenopathy, post jugular vein cannulation). There was a similar number of congenital and acquired pathologies. The malignancies were found at any level of the oculosympathetic pathway.

CONCLUSION: There are treatable causes, including malignancies, in children presenting with Horner syndrome, which justify imaging work-up of the entire oculosympathetic pathway, unless the lesion level can be determined clinically.

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