Clinical and molecular characterization of patients with heterozygous mutations in wilms tumor suppressor gene 1

Anja Lehnhardt, Claartje Karnatz, Thurid Ahlenstiel-Grunow, Kerstin Benz, Marcus R Benz, Klemens Budde, Anja K Büscher, Thomas Fehr, Markus Feldkötter, Norbert Graf, Britta Höcker, Therese Jungraithmayr, Günter Klaus, Birgit Koehler, Martin Konrad, Birgitta Kranz, Carmen R Montoya, Dominik Müller, Thomas J Neuhaus, Jun Oh, Lars Pape, Martin Pohl, Brigitte Royer-Pokora, Uwe Querfeld, Reinhard Schneppenheim, Hagen Staude, Giuseppina Spartà, Kirsten Timmermann, Frauke Wilkening, Simone Wygoda, Carsten Bergmann, Markus J Kemper
Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN 2015 May 7, 10 (5): 825-31

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The Wilms tumor suppressor gene 1 (WT1) plays an essential role in urogenital and kidney development. Genotype/phenotype correlations of WT1 mutations with renal function and proteinuria have been observed in world-wide cohorts with nephrotic syndrome or Wilms tumor (WT). This study analyzed mid-European patients with known constitutional heterozygous mutations in WT1, including patients without proteinuria or WT.

DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS & MEASUREMENTS: Retrospective analysis of genotype, phenotype, and treatment of 53 patients with WT1 mutation from all pediatric nephrology centers in Germany, Austria, and Switzerland performed from 2010 to 2012.

RESULTS: Median age was 12.4 (interquartile range [IQR], 6-19) years. Forty-four of 53 (83%) patients had an exon mutation (36 missense, eight truncating), and nine of 53 (17%) had an intronic lysine-threonine-serine (KTS) splice site mutation. Fifty of 53 patients (94%) had proteinuria, which occurred at an earlier age in patients with missense mutations (0.6 [IQR, 0.1-1.5] years) than in those with truncating (9.7 [IQR, 5.7-11.9]; P<0.001) and splice site (4.0 [IQR, 2.6-6.6]; P=0.004) mutations. Thirteen of 50 (26%) were treated with steroids and remained irresponsive, while three of five partially responded to cyclosporine A. Seventy-three percent of all patients required RRT, those with missense mutations significantly earlier (at 1.1 [IQR, 0.01-9.3] years) than those with truncating mutations (16.5 [IQR, 16.5-16.8]; P<0.001) and splice site mutations (12.3 [IQR, 7.9-18.2]; P=0.002). Diffuse mesangial sclerosis was restricted to patients with missense mutations, while focal segmental sclerosis occurred in all groups. WT occurred only in patients with exon mutations (n=19). Fifty of 53 (94%) patients were karyotyped: Thirty-one (62%) had XY and 19 (38%) had XX chromosomes, and 96% of male karyotypes had urogenital malformations.

CONCLUSIONS: Type and location of WT1 mutations have predictive value for the development of proteinuria, renal insufficiency, and WT. XY karyotype was more frequent and associated with urogenital malformations in most cases.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article


You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Related Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.


Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"