Total Body Irradiation-Based Myeloablative Haploidentical Stem Cell Transplantation Is a Safe and Effective Alternative to Unrelated Donor Transplantation in Patients Without Matched Sibling Donors

Scott R Solomon, Connie A Sizemore, Melissa Sanacore, Xu Zhang, Stacey Brown, H Kent Holland, Lawrence E Morris, Asad Bashey
Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation 2015, 21 (7): 1299-307
We enrolled 30 patients on a prospective phase II trial utilizing a total body irradiation (TBI)-based myeloablative preparative regimen (fludarabine 30 mg/m2/day × 3 days and TBI 150 cGy twice per day on day -4 to -1 [total dose 1200 cGy]) followed by infusion of unmanipulated peripheral blood stem cells from a haploidentical family donor (haplo). Postgrafting immunosuppression consisted of cyclophosphamide 50 mg/kg/day on days 3 and 4, mycophenolate mofetil through day 35, and tacrolimus through day 180. Median patient age was 46.5 years (range, 24 to 60). Transplantation diagnosis included acute myelogenous leukemia (n = 16), acute lymphoblastic leukemia (n = 6), chronic myelogenous leukemia (n = 5), myelodysplastic syndrome (n = 1), and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (n = 2). Using the Dana Farber/Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research/Disease Risk Index (DRI), patients were classified as low (n = 4), intermediate (n = 12), high (n = 11), and very high (n = 3) risk. All patients engrafted with a median time to neutrophil and platelet recovery of 16 and 25 days, respectively. All evaluable patients achieved sustained complete donor T cell and myeloid chimerism by day +30. Acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) grades II to IV and III and IV was seen in 43% and 23%, respectively. The cumulative incidence of chronic GVHD was 56% (severe in 10%). After a median follow-up of 24 months, the estimated 2-year overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS), nonrelapse mortality, and relapse rate were 78%, 73%, 3%, and 24%, respectively. Two-year DFS and relapse rate in patients with low/intermediate risk disease was 100% and 0%, respectively, compared with 39% and 53% for patients with high/very high risk disease. When compared with a contemporaneously treated cohort of patients at our institution receiving myeloablative HLA-matched unrelated donor (MUD) transplantation (acute myelogenous leukemia [n = 17], acute lymphoblastic leukemia [n = 15], chronic myelogenous leukemia [n = 7], myelodysplastic syndrome [n = 7], non-Hodgkin lymphoma [n = 1], chronic lymphoblastic leukemia [n = 1]), outcomes were statistically similar, with 2-yr OS and DFS being 78% and 73%, respectively after haplo transplantation versus 71% and 64%, respectively, after MUD transplantation. In patients with DRI low/intermediate risk disease, 2-yr DFS was superior after haplo compared with MUD transplantations (100% versus 74%, P = .032), whereas there was no difference in DFS in patients with high/very high risk disease (39% versus 37% for haplo and MUD respectively, P = .821). Grade II to IV acute GVHD was seen less often after haplo compared with MUD transplantation (43% versus 63%, P = .049), as was moderate-to-severe chronic GVHD (22% versus 58%, P = .003). Myeloablative haplo transplantation using this regimen is a valid option for patients with advanced hematologic malignancies who lack timely access to a conventional donor. Outcomes appear at least equivalent to those seen in contemporaneous patients who underwent transplantation from MUD.

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