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The effect of a combined glenoid and Hill-Sachs defect on glenohumeral stability: a biomechanical cadaveric study using 3-dimensional modeling of 142 patients

Robert A Arciero, Anthony Parrino, Andrew S Bernhardson, Vilmaris Diaz-Doran, Elifho Obopilwe, Mark P Cote, Petr Golijanin, Augustus D Mazzocca, Matthew T Provencher
American Journal of Sports Medicine 2015, 43 (6): 1422-9
25794869

BACKGROUND: Bone loss in anterior glenohumeral instability occurs on both the glenoid and the humerus; however, existing biomechanical studies have evaluated glenoid and humeral head defects in isolation. Thus, little is known about the combined effect of these bony lesions in a clinically relevant model on glenohumeral stability.

HYPOTHESIS/PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine the biomechanical efficacy of a Bankart repair in the setting of bipolar (glenoid and humeral head) bone defects determined via computer-generated 3-dimensional (3D) modeling of 142 patients with recurrent anterior shoulder instability. The null hypothesis was that adding a bipolar bone defect will have no effect on glenohumeral stability after soft tissue Bankart repair.

STUDY DESIGN: Controlled laboratory study.

METHODS: A total of 142 consecutive patients with recurrent anterior instability were analyzed with 3D computed tomography scans. Two Hill-Sachs lesions were selected on the basis of volumetric size representing the 25th percentile (0.87 cm(3); small) and 50th percentile (1.47 cm(3); medium) and printed in plastic resin with a 3D printer. A total of 21 cadaveric shoulders were evaluated on a custom shoulder-testing device permitting 6 degrees of freedom, and the force required to translate the humeral head anteriorly 10 mm at a rate of 2.0 mm/s with a compressive load of 50 N was determined at 60° of glenohumeral abduction and 60° of external rotation. All Bankart lesions were made sharply from the 2- to 6-o'clock positions for a right shoulder. Subsequent Bankart repair with transosseous tunnels using high-strength suture was performed. Hill-Sachs lesions were made in the cadaver utilizing a plastic mold from the exact replica off the 3D printer. Testing was conducted in the following sequence for each specimen: (1) intact, (2) posterior capsulotomy, (3) Bankart lesion, (4) Bankart repair, (5) Bankart lesion with 2-mm glenoid defect, (6) Bankart repair, (7) Bankart lesion with 2-mm glenoid defect and Hill-Sachs lesion, (8) Bankart repair, (9) Bankart lesion with 4-mm glenoid defect and Hill-Sachs lesion, (10) Bankart repair, (11) Bankart lesion with 6-mm glenoid defect and Hill-Sachs lesion, and (12) Bankart repair. All sequences were used first for a medium Hill-Sachs lesion (10 specimens) and then repeated for a small Hill-Sachs lesion (11 specimens). Three trials were performed in each condition, and the mean value was used for data analysis.

RESULTS: A statistically significant and progressive reduction in load to translation was observed after a Bankart lesion was created and with the addition of progressive glenoid defects for each humeral head defect. For medium (50th percentile) Hill-Sachs lesions, there was a 22%, 43%, and 58% reduction in stability with a 2-, 4-, and 6-mm glenoid defect, respectively. For small (25th percentile) Hill-Sachs lesions, there was an 18%, 27%, and 42% reduction in stability with a 2-, 4-, and 6-mm glenoid defect, respectively. With a ≥2-mm glenoid defect, the medium Hill-Sachs group demonstrated significant reduction in translation force after Bankart repair (P < .01), and for the small Hill-Sachs group, a ≥4-mm glenoid defect was required to produce a statistical decrease (P < .01) in reduction force after repair.

CONCLUSION: Combined glenoid and humeral head defects have an additive and negative effect on glenohumeral stability. As little as a 2-mm glenoid defect with a medium-sized Hill-Sachs lesion demonstrated a compromise in soft tissue Bankart repair, while small-sized Hill-Sachs lesions showed compromise of soft tissue repair with ≥4-mm glenoid bone loss.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Bipolar bony lesions of the glenoid and humeral head occur frequently together in clinical practice. Surgeons should be aware that the combined defects and glenoid bone loss of 2 to 4 mm or approximately 8% to 15% of the glenoid could compromise Bankart repair and thus may require surgical strategies in addition to traditional Bankart repair alone to optimize stability.

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