The effect of a combined glenoid and Hill-Sachs defect on glenohumeral stability: a biomechanical cadaveric study using 3-dimensional modeling of 142 patients

Robert A Arciero, Anthony Parrino, Andrew S Bernhardson, Vilmaris Diaz-Doran, Elifho Obopilwe, Mark P Cote, Petr Golijanin, Augustus D Mazzocca, Matthew T Provencher
American Journal of Sports Medicine 2015, 43 (6): 1422-9

BACKGROUND: Bone loss in anterior glenohumeral instability occurs on both the glenoid and the humerus; however, existing biomechanical studies have evaluated glenoid and humeral head defects in isolation. Thus, little is known about the combined effect of these bony lesions in a clinically relevant model on glenohumeral stability.

HYPOTHESIS/PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine the biomechanical efficacy of a Bankart repair in the setting of bipolar (glenoid and humeral head) bone defects determined via computer-generated 3-dimensional (3D) modeling of 142 patients with recurrent anterior shoulder instability. The null hypothesis was that adding a bipolar bone defect will have no effect on glenohumeral stability after soft tissue Bankart repair.

STUDY DESIGN: Controlled laboratory study.

METHODS: A total of 142 consecutive patients with recurrent anterior instability were analyzed with 3D computed tomography scans. Two Hill-Sachs lesions were selected on the basis of volumetric size representing the 25th percentile (0.87 cm(3); small) and 50th percentile (1.47 cm(3); medium) and printed in plastic resin with a 3D printer. A total of 21 cadaveric shoulders were evaluated on a custom shoulder-testing device permitting 6 degrees of freedom, and the force required to translate the humeral head anteriorly 10 mm at a rate of 2.0 mm/s with a compressive load of 50 N was determined at 60° of glenohumeral abduction and 60° of external rotation. All Bankart lesions were made sharply from the 2- to 6-o'clock positions for a right shoulder. Subsequent Bankart repair with transosseous tunnels using high-strength suture was performed. Hill-Sachs lesions were made in the cadaver utilizing a plastic mold from the exact replica off the 3D printer. Testing was conducted in the following sequence for each specimen: (1) intact, (2) posterior capsulotomy, (3) Bankart lesion, (4) Bankart repair, (5) Bankart lesion with 2-mm glenoid defect, (6) Bankart repair, (7) Bankart lesion with 2-mm glenoid defect and Hill-Sachs lesion, (8) Bankart repair, (9) Bankart lesion with 4-mm glenoid defect and Hill-Sachs lesion, (10) Bankart repair, (11) Bankart lesion with 6-mm glenoid defect and Hill-Sachs lesion, and (12) Bankart repair. All sequences were used first for a medium Hill-Sachs lesion (10 specimens) and then repeated for a small Hill-Sachs lesion (11 specimens). Three trials were performed in each condition, and the mean value was used for data analysis.

RESULTS: A statistically significant and progressive reduction in load to translation was observed after a Bankart lesion was created and with the addition of progressive glenoid defects for each humeral head defect. For medium (50th percentile) Hill-Sachs lesions, there was a 22%, 43%, and 58% reduction in stability with a 2-, 4-, and 6-mm glenoid defect, respectively. For small (25th percentile) Hill-Sachs lesions, there was an 18%, 27%, and 42% reduction in stability with a 2-, 4-, and 6-mm glenoid defect, respectively. With a ≥2-mm glenoid defect, the medium Hill-Sachs group demonstrated significant reduction in translation force after Bankart repair (P < .01), and for the small Hill-Sachs group, a ≥4-mm glenoid defect was required to produce a statistical decrease (P < .01) in reduction force after repair.

CONCLUSION: Combined glenoid and humeral head defects have an additive and negative effect on glenohumeral stability. As little as a 2-mm glenoid defect with a medium-sized Hill-Sachs lesion demonstrated a compromise in soft tissue Bankart repair, while small-sized Hill-Sachs lesions showed compromise of soft tissue repair with ≥4-mm glenoid bone loss.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Bipolar bony lesions of the glenoid and humeral head occur frequently together in clinical practice. Surgeons should be aware that the combined defects and glenoid bone loss of 2 to 4 mm or approximately 8% to 15% of the glenoid could compromise Bankart repair and thus may require surgical strategies in addition to traditional Bankart repair alone to optimize stability.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article


You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Related Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.


Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"