Renal cell carcinoma in patients with end-stage renal disease is associated with more favourable histological features and prognosis

Kenneth Chen, Hong Hong Huang, Hakan Aydin, Yeh Hong Tan, Weber K O Lau, Christopher W S Cheng, John S P Yuen
Scandinavian Journal of Urology 2015, 49 (3): 200-4

OBJECTIVE: End-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients with acquired cystic kidney disease are at higher risk of developing renal cell carcinoma (RCC) than the general population. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical and histopathological differences between ESRD patients and the general population with RCC.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data were retrospectively collected from all nephrectomies performed for localized RCC from 2000 to 2010. Age at nephrectomy, gender, race, symptoms, baseline Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status, Charlson Comorbidity Index score and histological data were extracted. Independent-samples t test and Mann-Whitney test were used for quantitative data, while chi-squared (two-sided) and Fisher's exact tests were used for qualitative data.

RESULTS: This study included 627 patients: 73 with and 554 without ESRD. The majority of patients were Chinese. The male to female ratio of 2:1 was identical in both groups. Baseline ECOG performance status and Charlson Comorbidity score were higher in the ESRD group. RCC in ESRD patients was more frequently asymptomatic (56.2% vs 44.9%, p = 0.071), diagnosed earlier (53.6 ± 11.8 years vs 57.9 ± 12.2 years, p = 0.004) and of lower stage (p < 0.001). The ESRD cohort had a higher proportion of the papillary histological subtype (21.9% vs 9.7%, p < 0.001). Importantly, there was a trend towards more favourable outcomes in ESRD patients in terms of cancer-specific (p = 0.203) and relapse-free survival (p = 0.096).

CONCLUSION: This study suggests that RCC in ESRD patients is associated with more favourable clinical and histological features and oncological outcome compared with that in patients with normal renal function.

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