Development of clinical pharmacy key performance indicators for hospital pharmacists using a modified Delphi approach

Olavo Fernandes, Sean K Gorman, Richard S Slavik, William M Semchuk, Steve Shalansky, Jean-François Bussières, Douglas Doucette, Heather Bannerman, Jennifer Lo, Simone Shukla, Winnie W Y Chan, Natalie Benninger, Neil J MacKinnon, Chaim M Bell, Jeremy Slobodan, Catherine Lyder, Peter J Zed, Kent Toombs
Annals of Pharmacotherapy 2015, 49 (6): 656-69

BACKGROUND: Key performance indicators (KPIs) are quantifiable measures of quality. There are no published, systematically derived clinical pharmacy KPIs (cpKPIs).

OBJECTIVE: A group of hospital pharmacists aimed to develop national cpKPIs to advance clinical pharmacy practice and improve patient care.

METHODS: A cpKPI working group established a cpKPI definition, 8 evidence-derived cpKPI critical activity areas, 26 candidate cpKPIs, and 11 cpKPI ideal attributes in addition to 1 overall consensus criterion. Twenty-six clinical pharmacists and hospital pharmacy leaders participated in an internet-based 3-round modified Delphi survey. Panelists rated 26 candidate cpKPIs using 11 cpKPI ideal attributes and 1 overall consensus criterion on a 9-point Likert scale. A meeting was facilitated between rounds 2 and 3 to debate the merits and wording of candidate cpKPIs. Consensus was reached if 75% or more of panelists assigned a score of 7 to 9 on the consensus criterion during the third Delphi round.

RESULTS: All panelists completed the 3 Delphi rounds, and 25/26 (96%) attended the meeting. Eight candidate cpKPIs met the consensus definition: (1) performing admission medication reconciliation (including best-possible medication history), (2) participating in interprofessional patient care rounds, (3) completing pharmaceutical care plans, (4) resolving drug therapy problems, (5) providing in-person disease and medication education to patients, (6) providing discharge patient medication education, (7) performing discharge medication reconciliation, and (8) providing bundled, proactive direct patient care activities.

CONCLUSIONS: A Delphi panel of hospital pharmacists was successful in determining 8 consensus cpKPIs. Measurement and assessment of these cpKPIs will serve to advance clinical pharmacy practice and improve patient care.

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