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Comparison of results after one year between sleeve gastrectomy and gastric bypass in patients with BMI ≥ 50 kg/m².

BACKGROUND: Although laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) was initially described as the first step of a 2-stage procedure for high-risk patients requiring laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB), it is now being used as a single-stage procedure. Experience with laparoscopic bariatric surgery is growing, such that LRYGB is increasingly feasible for patients with body mass index (BMI) ≥ 50 kg/m². Nevertheless, outcomes for such category of patients following LSG and LRYGB are lacking.

OBJECTIVE: To compare weight loss and changes in obesity related co-morbidities at one year following LSG with LRYGB in patients with BMI ≥ 50 kg/m².

SETTINGS: The prospective database of a single surgery university center was queried for clinical and other relevant data.

METHODS: From January 2004 to January 2013, 74 and 285 patients underwent LSG or LRYGB with a BMI ≥ 50 kg/m². At one year, rate of follow-up was 92.8%. Success of surgery was defined as % of excess weight loss (%EWL)≥ 50% at one year. Logistic regression was used to compute odds ratio (OR) to evaluate the success at one year of surgery.

RESULTS: LSG (N = 74) and LGBP (N = 285) groups did not differ for initial BMI (57.2 ± 7.1 versus 56.7 ± 5.5 kg/m²; P = .52), % of female (64.6% versus 73.7%, P = .13) or major adverse postoperative events (5.7% versus 6.7%; P = .85). At one year, the mean percentage of weight loss (%) (22.0 ± 7.6 versus 30.3 ± 7.4; P < .0001) and percentage of excess weight loss (%) (40.2 ± 15.2 versus 55.0 ± 14.6; P < .0001) and rates of remission of diabetes (47.5% versus 70.7%; P = .01) were greater in the LGBP than LSG group. In multivariate analyses (OR), LSG was an independent factor of failure of weight loss (.12; P < .0001) CONCLUSION: After 1 year of follow-up in patients with a BMI ≥ 50 kg/m², LRYGB provides better weight loss and resolution in diabetes than LSG with similar postoperative morbidity. Further long-term studies are needed to confirm these results.

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