Does augmentation cystoplasty with continent reconstruction at a young age increase the risk of complications or secondary surgeries?

Laura S Merriman, Angela M Arlen, Andrew J Kirsch, Traci Leong, Edwin A Smith
Journal of Pediatric Urology 2015, 11 (1): 41.e1-5

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE: Lower urinary tract reconstruction with augmentation cystoplasty (AC) is an effective strategy for achieving urinary continence in children with neurogenic or severely compromised bladder. We compared complications and need for secondary surgeries in children 3-5 years of age undergoing AC with continent reconstruction to those ≥ 6 years old.

STUDY DESIGN: Medical charts of children undergoing AC with continent urinary diversion between 2003 and 2011 were reviewed. Complications and secondary surgeries were analyzed according to patient age. Patient demographics, etiology of bladder dysfunction, bowel segment used, and concomitant procedures were also assessed.

RESULTS: One hundred and eight children underwent AC with continent urinary diversion. Mean age at augmentation was 8.5 years (range 3-20). Twenty-eight children (25.9%) were 3-5 years old and 80 (74.1%) were ≥ 6 years. Mean follow-up was 6.93 years (range 1.6-10 years). Bowel segment used included ileum in 59 (54.6%), sigmoid in 33 (30.6%), cecum in 4 (3.7%) and composite in 12 (11.1%). Major complications included bowel obstruction in 6 (5.6%), bladder perforation in 3 (2.8%) and fistula in 2 (1.9%). There was no difference in major complications based on bowel segment utilized (p = 0.804, OR 0.894) or age (p = 0.946, OR 0.969). Fifty children (46.3%) required no additional surgeries; the remaining 58 underwent 137 procedures post-augmentation. Surgeries included urolithiasis management (58/137, 42.3%), appendicovesicostomy revision including stoma revision or redo for persistent leakage between catheterizations in (34/137, 24.8%), bladder neck procedures (26/137, 19%) and revision of MACE (19/137, 13.9%) [Figure]. Incidence of stones in patients 3-5 years (32.1%) was not significantly different than children ≥ 6 years of age (25%, p = 0.463, OR 0.704). Mean number of secondary surgeries for those 3-5 years was 1.21 ± 1.34, which was not statistically different than those ≥ 6 (1.3 ± 1.82, p = 0.154). Children with myelomeningocele (MMC) were statistically more likely to require secondary surgeries than those with other bladder pathology (p = 0.01).

DISCUSSION: Augmentation enterocystoplasty with cutaneous continent catheterizable channel is performed both to protect the upper urinary tract and afford the patient the option of social continence. Continent lower urinary tract reconstruction has been proven technically feasible and safe in preschool-aged children however, the ideal age for augmentation remains unknown. Urolithiasis accounted for over 40% of additional procedures in our series, with 26.9% of patients requiring one or more surgeries for stone disease. The incidence of stone disease in patients 3-5 years of age at the time of augmentation was comparable to that seen in older children. The overall need for additional post-augment procedures was not influenced by patient age or bowel segment utilized, however children with MMC were significantly more likely to require future surgeries than those with a different underlying etiology of bladder dysfunction. Our study has several limitations that warrant mention. Children with neurogenic bladder represent a heterogeneous population, and their surgical outcomes are inherently influenced by underlying disease processes and severity. Complications and secondary surgeries were assessed; however success rates were not evaluated in the current study. Patient and caregiver adherence with CIC and daily bladder irrigation was not assessed; whether noncompliance affected complication rates (i.e. stone formation) is unknown.

CONCLUSION: Whether performed at a young or older age, families must be adequately counseled regarding the daily management responsibilities and potential risks associated with lower urinary tract reconstruction including bladder augmentation. Augmentation with continent urinary diversion in selected patients 3-5 years of age confers complication and secondary surgery risk equal to that observed in their older counterparts.

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