Combination of intratypic and intertypic recombinant events in EV71: a novel evidence for the "triple-recombinant" strains of genotype A viruses in Mainland China from 2008 to 2010

Yongjuan Liu, Fengfeng Zhang, Chong Fu, Suying Wu, Xiong Chen, Yingying Shi, Bingfei Zhou, Lianglu Zhang, Yingying Zhang, Song Han, Jun Yin, Biwen Peng, Xiaohua He, Wanhong Liu
Virus Genes 2015, 50 (3): 365-74
The first Enterovirus 71 (EV71) strain isolated in 1969 was classified as genotype A. It is interesting that the genotype A disappeared nearly 40 years until its re-emergence in mainland China in 2008-2010. Few studies on genetic characterization of the re-emerged genotype A viruses have been reported. In this study, a series of analyses were performed on molecular epidemiology and genome recombination of genotype A viruses in China. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that except for 17 reported genotype A strains and 3 orphan strains (C0, C3 and B5), almost all EV71 strains in mainland China were belonging to subgenotype C4 during 1987-2011. The subgenotype C4 was further divided into 3 clades C4a1, C4a2, and C4b. The genotype A viruses co-circulated with the predominant clade C4a2 and the re-emerged clade C4b both in eastern and central China in 2008-2009. Moreover, comprehensive recombination analysis showed that the genotype A viruses were "triple-recombinant" by combination of intratypic and intertypic recombination. Intertypic recombination between the oldest C4b strain (SHZH98) and Coxsackievirus A5 (CVA5) and intratypic recombination between the SHZH98 and C1 strains both with one junction in 5'-UTR were observed for some specific C4a2 strains and the re-emerged C4b strain, respectively. And intratypic recombination between the re-emerged C4b strain and the specific C4a2 strains with one junction in 5'-UTR was observed for the Chinese genotype A viruses. Taken together, these results provided potential explanations for the genesis of Chinese genotype A viruses which were significant for preventing and controlling outbreaks.

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