Does self-efficacy mediate functional change in older adults participating in an exercise program after hip fracture? A randomized controlled trial

Feng-Hang Chang, Nancy K Latham, Pengsheng Ni, Alan M Jette
Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 2015, 96 (6): 1014-1020.e1

OBJECTIVES: To examine whether self-efficacy mediated the effect of the Home-based Post-Hip Fracture Rehabilitation program on activity limitations in older adults after hip fracture and whether the mediating effect was different between sex and age groups.

DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial.

SETTING: Community.

PARTICIPANTS: Participants with hip fracture (N=232; mean age ± SD, 79±9.4y) were randomly assigned to intervention (n=120, 51.7%) and attention control (n=112, 48.3%) groups.

INTERVENTIONS: The 6-month intervention, the Home-based Post-Hip Fracture Rehabilitation, is a functionally oriented, home-based exercise program. Data were collected at baseline, postintervention (6mo), and follow-up (9mo).

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Activity Measure for Post-Acute Care.

RESULTS: The mediating effect of the Home-based Post-Hip Fracture Rehabilitation program on Basic Mobility function through self-efficacy for exercise was significant at 9 months (βindirect=.21). Similarly, the mediating effect of the intervention on Daily Activity function through self-efficacy for exercise was significant at 9 months (βindirect=.49). In subgroup analyses, the mediating effect was significant at 9 months in the younger group (age, ≤79y) in comparison to the older group and was significant in women in comparison to men.

CONCLUSIONS: Self-efficacy may play a partial mediating role in the effect on some longer-term functional outcomes in the Home-based Post-Hip Fracture Rehabilitation intervention. The results suggest that program components that target self-efficacy should be incorporated in future hip fracture rehabilitation interventions. Age and sex of the targeted participants may also need to be considered when developing interventions.


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