CTX-M-27- and CTX-M-14-producing, ciprofloxacin-resistant Escherichia coli of the H30 subclonal group within ST131 drive a Japanese regional ESBL epidemic

Yasufumi Matsumura, James R Johnson, Masaki Yamamoto, Miki Nagao, Michio Tanaka, Shunji Takakura, Satoshi Ichiyama
Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 2015, 70 (6): 1639-49

OBJECTIVES: The global increase in ESBL-producing Escherichia coli is associated with the ST131 clonal group, especially its CTX-M-15-producing H30Rx subset. To understand the rapid spread of ESBL-producing E. coli in Japan, we investigated the molecular epidemiology and ESBL-associated genetic environments of Japanese ST131 isolates.

METHODS: Between 2001 and 2012, 1079 ESBL-producing E. coli isolates were collected at 10 Japanese acute-care hospitals. ESBL types, ST131 status, fimH allele, H30Rx-defining sequences and ESBL-associated genetic environments were defined using PCR and sequencing. Subclonal groups were defined based on fimH allele and H30Rx status.

RESULTS: Overall, 461 (43%) of the 1079 ESBL-producing E. coli isolates represented ST131. According to fimH-based subclonal typing, the ST131 isolates included 398 fimH allele 30 (H30) isolates, 49 H41 isolates, 10 H22 isolates and 4 other fimH-type isolates. The 398 H30 isolates included 396 ciprofloxacin-resistant H30R isolates, of which 64 (16%) represented the H30Rx subset. Between 2001 and 2007, the CTX-M-14-producing H30R subgroup predominated, accounting for 46% of ST131 isolates, whereas the CTX-M-27-producing H30R and CTX-M-15-producing H30Rx subgroups were rarely detected. In contrast, from 2008 onward the latter two subgroups rose to dominance, accounting for 45% and 24% of ST131 isolates, respectively, versus only 15% for the (formerly dominant) CTX-M-14-producing H30R subgroup. The emergent CTX-M-27-H30R subgroup frequently had an IS26-ΔISEcp1-blaCTX-M-27-ΔIS903D-IS26-like structure, whereas the older CTX-M-14-H30R subgroup frequently had an ISEcp1-blaCTX-M-14-IS903D-like structure.

CONCLUSIONS: This Japanese regional ESBL-producing E. coli epidemic is closely associated with newly identified CTX-M-27- and CTX-M-14-producing ST131 H30R subclonal groups and with mobile elements IS26, ISEcp1 and IS903D.

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