Rotavirus associated gastroenteritis in Thailand

Niwat Maneekarn, Pattara Khamrin
Virusdisease 2014, 25 (2): 201-7
Group A rotavirus is the leading cause of severe diarrhea in infants and young children, and in young animals of many species worldwide. Rotavirus is also the major cause of deaths of children younger than 5 years of age, particularly, in developing countries in Asia and Africa. In Thailand, the burden of rotavirus infection rate in children admitted to the hospitals with acute gastroenteritis ranged from 28.4 to 44.5 %. The seasonality of rotavirus gastroenteritis in Thailand was detected all-year-round with the peak from November to April of the following year. The distributions of G genotypes in pediatric patients during twelve-year surveillances of 2000-2011 were G1, G2, G3, G4, G9, and G12. The G9 was detected as the most predominant genotype in 2000-2004 while G1 and G3 were predominated in 2005-2009 and 2009-2011, respectively. The G4 was detected only in 2001-2003 and G12 only in 2007-2009 but was not detectable in any other years of surveillances. For P genotype, P[8] was the only P genotype that always existed as the most predominant with high prevalence. The G-P combination of human rotavirus strains circulated in Thailand were G1P[8], G2P[4], G2P[8], G3P[3], G3P[8], G3P[9], G3P[10], G3P[19], G9P[8], G12P[6], and G12P[8]. The G1P[8] was the most predominant strain followed by G9P[8], G2P[4], G3P[8], G12P[8], G3P[9], G3P[10], G3P[3], G2P[8], G3P[19], and G12P[6]. The studies of animal rotaviruses were performed mainly on porcine rotaviruses and a wide variety of porcine rotavirus strains have been reported, including G2P[27], G3P[6], G3P[13], G3P[19], G3P[23], G4P[6], G4P[13], G4P[19], G4P[23], G5P[6], G5P[13], G9P[7], G9P[13], and G9P[19]. Several unusual strains of human rotaviruses that carried the genes with nucleotide sequences closely related to those of animal rotaviruses have been described in Chiang Mai, Thailand which provided evidences for interspecies transmission of rotaviruses between humans and animals, and also animals to animals are occurring in nature.

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