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Parvovirus B19 infection in pregnancy.

OBJECTIVES: This guideline reviews the evidence relating to the effects of parvovirus B19 on the pregnant woman and fetus, and discusses the management of women who are exposed to, who are at risk of developing, or who develop parvovirus B19 infection in pregnancy.

OUTCOMES: The outcomes evaluated were maternal outcomes including erythema infectiosum, arthropathy, anemia, and myocarditis, and fetal outcomes including spontaneous abortion, congenital anomalies, hydrops fetalis, stillbirth, and long-term effects.

EVIDENCE: Published literature was retrieved through searches of PubMed and The Cochrane Library on July 8, 2013, using appropriate controlled vocabulary (MeSH terms "parvovirus" and "pregnancy") and key words (parvovirus, infection, pregnancy, hydrops). Results were restricted to systematic reviews, randomized control trials/controlled clinical trials, and observational studies. There were no date restrictions but results were limited to English or French language materials. Grey (unpublished) literature was identified through searching the websites of health technology assessment and health technology assessment-related agencies, clinical practice guideline collections, and national and international medical specialty.

VALUES: The quality of evidence in this document was rated using the criteria described in the Report of the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care (Table 1). Recommendations 1. Investigation for parvovirus B19 infection is recommended apart of the standard workup for fetal hydrops or intrauterine fetal death. (II-2A) 2. Routine screening for parvovirus immunity in low-risk pregnancies is not recommended. (II-2E) 3. Pregnant women who are exposed to, or who develop symptoms of, parvovirus B19 infection should be assessed to determine whether they are susceptible to infection (non-immune) or have a current infection by determining their parvovirus B19 immunoglobulin G and immunoglobulin M status. (II-2A) 4. If parvovirus B19 immunoglobulin G is present and immunoglobulin M is negative, the woman is immune and should be reassured that she will not develop infection and that the virus will not adversely affect her pregnancy. (II-2A) 5. If both parvovirus B19 immunoglobulin G and immunoglobulin M are negative (and the incubation period has passed), the woman is not immune and has not developed the infection. She should be advised to minimize exposure at work and at home. Absence from work should be considered on a case-by-case basis. (II-2C) Further studies are recommended to address ways to lessen exposure including the risk of occupational exposure. (III-A) 6. If a recent parvovirus B19 infection has been diagnosed in the woman, referral to an obstetrician or a maternal-fetal medicine specialist should be considered. (III-B) The woman should be counselled regarding risks of fetal transmission, fetal loss, and hydrops and serial ultrasounds should be performed every 1 to 2 weeks, up to 12 weeks after infection, to detect the development of anemia (using Doppler measurement of the middle cerebral artery peak systolic velocity) and hydrops. (III-B) If hydrops or evidence of fetal anemia develops, referral should be made to a specialist capable of fetal blood sampling and intravascular transfusion. (II-2B).

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