JOURNAL ARTICLE
MULTICENTER STUDY

Sofosbuvir plus ribavirin for treatment of hepatitis C virus in patients co-infected with HIV (PHOTON-2): a multicentre, open-label, non-randomised, phase 3 study

Jean-Michel Molina, Chloe Orkin, David M Iser, Francisco-Xavier Zamora, Mark Nelson, Christoph Stephan, Benedetta Massetto, Anuj Gaggar, Liyun Ni, Evguenia Svarovskaia, Diana Brainard, G Mani Subramanian, John G McHutchison, Massimo Puoti, Jürgen K Rockstroh
Lancet 2015 March 21, 385 (9973): 1098-106
25659285

BACKGROUND: Although interferon-free regimens are approved for patients co-infected with HIV and genotype-2 or genotype-3 hepatitis C virus (HCV), interferon-based regimens are still an option for those co-infected with HIV and HCV genotypes 1 or 4. These regimens are limited by clinically significant toxic effects and drug interactions with antiretroviral therapy. We aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of an interferon-free, all-oral regimen of sofosbuvir plus ribavirin in patients with HIV and HCV co-infection.

METHODS: We did this open-label, non-randomised, uncontrolled, phase 3 study at 45 sites in seven European countries and Australia. We enrolled patients (aged ≥18 years) co-infected with stable HIV and chronic HCV genotypes 1-4, including those with compensated cirrhosis. Once-daily sofosbuvir (400 mg) plus twice-daily ribavirin (1000 mg in patients with bodyweights <75 kg and 1200 mg in those with weights ≥75 kg) was given for 24 weeks to all patients except treatment-naive patients with genotype-2 HCV, who received a 12-week regimen. The primary efficacy endpoint was sustained virological response 12 weeks after treatment. We did analysis by modified intention to treat. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01783678.

FINDINGS: Between Feb 7, 2013, and July 29, 2013, we enrolled 275 eligible patients, of whom 262 (95%) completed treatment; 274 patients were included in the final analysis. Overall rates of sustained virological response 12 weeks after treatment were 85% (95% CI 77-91) in patients with genotype-1 HCV, 88% (69-98) in patients with genotype-2 HCV, 89% (81-94) in patients with genotype-3 HCV, and 84% (66-95) in patients with genotype-4 HCV. Response rates in treatment-naive patients with HCV genotypes 2 or 3 (89% [95% CI 67-99] and 91% [81-97], respectively) were similar to those in treatment-experienced patients infected with those genotypes (83% [36-100] and 86% [73-94], respectively). There was no emergence of sofosbuvir-resistance mutations in patients with HCV viral relapse. Six (2%) patients discontinued treatment because of adverse events. The most common adverse events were fatigue, insomnia, asthenia, and headache. Four (1%) patients had serious adverse events regarded as related to study treatment. Additionally, four (1%) patients receiving antiretroviral treatment had a transient HIV viral breakthrough; however, none required changes in antiretroviral regimen.

INTERPRETATION: Sofosbuvir and ribavirin provided high rates of sustained virological response after 12 weeks of treatment in treatment-naive and treatment-experienced patients co-infected with HIV and HCV genotypes 1-4. The characteristics of this interferon-free combination regimen make sofosbuvir plus ribavirin a useful treatment option for this patient population.

FUNDING: Gilead Sciences.

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