Higher Dose of Mycophenolate Mofetil Reduces Acute Graft-versus-Host Disease in Reduced-Intensity Conditioning Double Umbilical Cord Blood Transplantation

Nelli Bejanyan, John Rogosheske, Todd DeFor, Aleksandr Lazaryan, Kelli Esbaum, Shernan Holtan, Mukta Arora, Margaret L MacMillan, Daniel Weisdorf, Pamala Jacobson, John Wagner, Claudio G Brunstein
Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation 2015, 21 (5): 926-33
Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) is frequently used in hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) for graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis and to facilitate engraftment. We previously reported that a higher level of mycophenolic acid can be achieved with an MMF dose of 3 g/day than with 2 g/day. Here, we retrospectively compared clinical outcomes of reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) double umbilical cord blood (dUCB) HCT recipients receiving cyclosporine A with MMF 2 g (n = 93) versus 3 g (n = 175) daily. Multiple regression analysis adjusted for antithymocyte globulin in the conditioning revealed that MMF 3 g/day led to a 49% relative risk (RR) reduction in grade II to IV acute GVHD rate (RR, .51; 95% confidence interval, .36 to .72; P < .01). However, the higher MMF dose was not protective for chronic GVHD. Additionally, MMF dose was not an independent predictor of neutrophil engraftment or treatment-related mortality at 6 months or 2-year post-transplantation disease relapse, disease-free survival, or overall survival. Higher MMF dose did not increase risk of infectious complications, and infection-related mortality was similar for both MMF doses. Our data indicate that MMF 3 g/day reduces the risk of acute GVHD without affecting other clinical outcomes and should be used for GVHD prophylaxis after RIC dUCB transplantation.

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