Standardized extract of Vitex doniana Sweet stalls protein oxidation, lipid peroxidation and DNA fragmention in acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity

T O Ajiboye
Journal of Ethnopharmacology 2015 April 22, 164: 273-82

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Vitex doniana fruits are locally used in Nigeria as a remedy in the treatment of jaundice and liver related disease. The effect of methanolic extract of Vitex doniana fruits on acetaminophen induced protein oxidation, lipid peroxidation and DNA fragmentation was investigated in mice.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Antioxidant activity of the extract (0.2-1.0mg/mL) was investigated in vitro using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, superoxide ion, hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl radical and ferric ion reducing system. Vitex doniana extract at 1.0mg/mL scavenged DPPH, superoxide ion, hydrogen peroxide, and hydroxyl radical by 86%, 78%, 80% and 72% respectively, it also reduced ferric ion significantly. Hepatoprotective effect of Vitex doniana fruits was monitored in acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity in mice.

RESULTS: Acetaminophen-mediated alterations in serum alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, albumin and total bilirubin levels in mice were significantly (P<0.05) attenuated by the extract. Similarly, acetaminophen-mediated decrease in activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase was significantly (P<0.05) attenuated in the liver of mice. Increased levels of conjugated dienes, lipid hydroperoxides, malondialdehyde, protein carbonyl and fragmented DNA were significantly (P<0.05) lowered by methanolic extract of Vitex doniana fruits.

CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the results of this study show that Vitex doniana fruits possess antioxidant properties and halted acetaminophen-mediated oxidative rout on cellular proteins, lipids and DNA, made possible by β-sitosterol, platycodin D, apigenin, saikosaponin, chrysin and ellagitanin in the extract.

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