Prevalence and association of self-reported anxiety, pain, and oral parafunctional habits with temporomandibular disorders in Japanese children and adolescents: a cross-sectional survey

Hiroyuki Karibe, Kisaki Shimazu, Ayuko Okamoto, Tomomi Kawakami, Yuichi Kato, Sachie Warita-Naoi
BMC Oral Health 2015, 15: 8

BACKGROUND: Associations between temporomandibular disorder (TMD) and psychological variables, pain conditions, and daily activities have been reported more commonly in middle-aged individuals than in children. However, to determine factor-specific preventive programs for TMD, it is important to evaluate the associations between multiple factors and TMD symptoms during childhood. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between TMD symptoms and other orofacial pain conditions, daily activities, and trait anxiety in a population-based cross-sectional survey of Japanese children and adolescents.

METHODS: A total of 1,415 subjects (11-15 years old) self-reported their TMD symptoms, headache, neck pain, and toothache, and completed questionnaire scales that assessed 15 daily activities. Trait anxiety was assessed using the State Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children-Trait (STAIC-T) scale. Subjects were dichotomized into a TMD group or control group, based on whether they reported at least 1 TMD symptom: the TMD group (≥1 TMD symptom, n = 182) and the control group (no TMD symptoms, n = 1,233). Data were analyzed using the chi-square test and multivariate logistic regression analysis.

RESULTS: The prevalence rates for headache and neck pain were significantly higher in the TMD group than in the control group (44.0% vs. 24.7% and 54.4% vs. 30.0%, respectively; both P < 0.001). The odds ratios for TMD symptoms in subjects with neck pain and frequent diurnal clenching were 2.08 (P < 0.001) and 3.69 (P = 0.011), respectively. Moreover, high STAIC-T scores were weakly associated with TMD symptoms.

CONCLUSIONS: In this young Japanese population, TMD symptoms were associated with other orofacial pain conditions, particularly neck pain, although they were only weakly associated with trait anxiety. Diurnal clenching was strongly associated with TMD symptoms. Health professionals should carefully consider these factors when developing appropriate management strategies for TMD in children and adolescents.

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