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Orofacial granulomatosis: clinical signs of different pathologies

Giuseppe Troiano, Mario Dioguardi, Giovanni Giannatempo, Luigi Laino, Nunzio Francesco Testa, Roberto Cocchi, Alfredo De Lillo, Lorenzo Lo Muzio
Medical Principles and Practice: International Journal of the Kuwait University, Health Science Centre 2015, 24 (2): 117-22
25592641
Orofacial granulomatosis (OFG) is an uncommon disease characterized by persistent or recurrent soft tissue enlargement, oral ulceration and a variety of other orofacial features. It could be an oral manifestation of a systemic disease. For a correct differential diagnosis, local and systemic conditions characterized by granulomatous inflammation should be excluded using appropriate clinical and laboratory investigations. In fact, the diagnosis of OFG may be confirmed only by histopathological identification of noncaseating granulomas. The literature from 1943 to 2014 was reviewed with emphasis on the etiology of OFG and on clinical manifestations of systemic pathologies associated with OFG. The precise cause of OFG is still unknown, although several theories have been suggested, such as infection, hereditary factors and allergy. OFG is a disease that has a wide spectrum of presentation, which may include the oral manifestation of a systemic condition such as Crohn's disease, sarcoidosis, granulomatosis with polyangiitis and Melkersson-Rosenthal syndrome.

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