COMPARATIVE STUDY
JOURNAL ARTICLE

In vitro hemodynamic evaluation of a novel pulsatile extracorporeal life support system: impact of perfusion modes and circuit components on energy loss

Shigang Wang, Allen R Kunselman, Joseph B Clark, Akif Ündar
Artificial Organs 2015, 39 (1): 59-66
25586773
The objective of this study is to investigate the impact of every component of extracorporeal life support (ECLS) circuit on hemodynamic energy transmission in terms of energy equivalent pressure (EEP), total hemodynamic energy (THE), and surplus hemodynamic energy (SHE) under nonpulsatile and pulsatile modes in a novel ECLS system. The ECLS circuit consisted of i-cor diagonal pump and console (Xenios AG, Heilbronn, Germany), an iLA membrane ventilator (Xenios AG), an 18 Fr femoral arterial cannula, a 23/25 Fr femoral venous cannula, and 3/8-in ID arterial and venous tubing. The circuit was primed with lactated Ringer's solution and human whole blood (hematocrit 33%). All trials were conducted under room temperature at the flow rates of 1-4 L/min (1 L/min increments). The pulsatile flow settings were set at pulsatile frequency of 75 beats per minute and differential speed values of 1000-4000 rpm (1000 rpm increments). Flow and pressure data were collected using a custom-based data acquisition system. EEP was significantly higher than mean arterial pressure in all experimental conditions under pulsatile flow (P < 0.01). THE was also increased under pulsatile flow compared with the nonpulsatile flow (P < 0.01). Under pulsatile flow conditions, SHE was significantly higher and increased differential rpm resulted in significantly higher SHE (P < 0.01). There was no SHE generated under nonpulsatile flow. Energy loss depending on the circuit components was almost similar in both perfusion modes at all different flow rates. The pressure drops across the oxygenator were 3.8-24.9 mm Hg, and the pressure drops across the arterial cannula were 19.3-172.6 mm Hg at the flow rates of 1-4 L/min. Depending on the pulsatility setting, i-cor ECLS system generates physiological quality pulsatile flow without increasing the mean circuit pressure. The iLA membrane ventilator is a low-resistance oxygenator, and allows more hemodynamic energy to be delivered to the patient under pulsatile mode. The 18 Fr femoral arterial cannula has acceptable pressure drops under nonpulsatile and pulsatile modes. Further in vivo studies are warranted to confirm these results.

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