Prevalence of dyslipidemia and metabolic syndrome risk factor in overweight and obese children

Patricia L Casavalle, Fima Lifshitz, Laura S Romano, Marcela Pandolfo, Anabella Caamaño, Patricia M Boyer, Patricia N Rodríguez, Silvia M Friedman
Pediatric Endocrinology Reviews: PER 2014, 12 (2): 213-23

OBJECTIVE: To study the prevalence of dyslipidemia and metabolic syndrome risk factors in overweight/ obese children and adolescents.

METHODOLOGY: The study included 139 healthy white Argentinean children/adolescents (aged 8-14 years) who were overweight (n = 30) or obese (n = 109), based on BMI z score according to WHO, 2007. Children were referred to the Nutrition Clinic, San Martin University Hospital, Buenos Aires, Argentina for evaluation and treatment. Dyslipidemia was considered when one or more serum lipids (mg/dL) were out of range: total cholesterol ≥ 200, high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C) ≤ 40, triglycerides (TG) > 110, low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C) > 130 or non-HDL-C > 145 and fasting blood glucose (FBG) > 110. Additional metabolic syndrome risk factors included: increased waist circumference (WC, ≥ 90th percentile) and high blood pressure (> 90th percentile). A history of low birth weight (< 2.5 kg) and a family history of: dyslipidemia (FHDL), premature acute myocardial infarction (FHPAMI) and/or type 2 diabetes mellitus (FHT2DM) were also assessed.

RESULTS: The prevalence of dyslipidemia among overweight and obese children was 50.4% and its pattern was: hypertriglyceridemia 31.9%, low HDL-C 29.7%, high non-HDL-C 15.8%, hypercholesterolemia 11.9%, and elevated LDL-C 10.7%. The dyslipidemia was more often detected among those with increased WC (55.4%), FHDL (51.1%), and FHT2DM (48%); prevalence was lower in those with FHPAMI (18.7%) and low birth weight (4.3%). Most children presented a variety of metabolic syndrome risk factors; only 25.8% did not have any such alterations identified. BMI z score showed a positive association with TG and negative with HDL-C. Overweight and obesity increased the odds ratios of metabolic syndrome risk factors, hypertriglyceridemia and low HDL-C.

CONCLUSIONS: Overweight/obese children were prone to have dyslipidemia and metabolic syndrome. Excess body weight is an important harbinger of health that requires the assessment of multiple parameters to discern further health concerns that may be amenable to specific treatment.

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