Osteoarthritic changes after superior and inferior joint space injection of hyaluronic acid for the treatment of temporomandibular joint osteoarthritis with anterior disc displacement without reduction: a cone-beam computed tomographic evaluation

Cheng Li, Xing Long, Mohong Deng, Jian Li, Hengxing Cai, Qinggong Meng
Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery 2015, 73 (2): 232-44

PURPOSE: This study compared the effect of superior and inferior joint space injections of hyaluronic acid (HA) and evaluated osteoarthritic changes in patients diagnosed with temporomandibular joint (TMJ) anterior disc displacement without reduction (ADDw/oR) in association with osteoarthritis (OA) by cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT).

MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred forty-one patients with research diagnostic criteria for ADDw/oR in association with TMJ OA were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 study groups that received superior or inferior joint space injection of HA. CBCT and clinical examination were performed before treatment and at 3 and 9 months after treatment.

RESULTS: One hundred twenty-six patients returned for the 3-month evaluations, and 74 returned for the 9-month evaluations. Condylar remodeling and TMJ function showed improvement in most patients after treatment. At 3 months, remodeling scores in the superior and inferior groups were 2.14 ± 3.16 and 4.08 ± 3.82, respectively, and scores were 4.80 ± 3.36 and 7.47 ± 3.90 at 9 months. There were significant differences between the superior and inferior groups at 3 and 9 months after treatment (3-month, P = .002; 9-month, P = .002). The Helkimo index of the inferior group was significantly lower than that of superior group at 3 and 9 months (3-month, P = .008; 9-month, P = .028). There were no significant differences in maximal mouth opening between the 2 groups at 3 and 9 months (3-month, P = .82; 9-month, P = .20).

CONCLUSION: Superior and inferior joint space injections of HA are effective methods for the treatment of ADDw/oR in association with TMJ OA. The injection of HA within the inferior joint space appears to result in better condylar reparative remodeling and improvement in jaw function.

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