JOURNAL ARTICLE

Fucoidan promotes osteoblast differentiation via JNK- and ERK-dependent BMP2-Smad 1/5/8 signaling in human mesenchymal stem cells

Beom Su Kim, Hyo-Jin Kang, Ji-Yun Park, Jun Lee
Experimental & Molecular Medicine 2015, 47: e128
25572360
Fucoidan has attracted attention as a potential drug because of its biological activities, which include osteogenesis. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in the osteogenic activity of fucoidan in human alveolar bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hABM-MSCs) remain largely unknown. We investigated the action of fucoidan on osteoblast differentiation in hABM-MSCs and its impact on signaling pathways. Its effect on proliferation was determined using the crystal violet staining assay. Osteoblast differentiation was evaluated based on alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and the mRNA expression of multiple osteoblast markers. Calcium accumulation was determined by Alizarin red S staining. We found that fucoidan induced hABM-MSC proliferation. It also significantly increased ALP activity, calcium accumulation and the expression of osteoblast-specific genes, such as ALP, runt-related transcription factor 2, type I collagen-α 1 and osteocalcin. Moreover, fucoidan induced the expression of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) and stimulated the activation of extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase by increasing phosphorylation. However, the effect of fucoidan on osteogenic differentiation was inhibited by specific inhibitors of ERK (PD98059) and JNK (SP600125) but not p38 (SB203580). Fucoidan enhanced BMP2 expression and Smad 1/5/8, ERK and JNK phosphorylation. Moreover, the effect of fucoidan on osteoblast differentiation was diminished by BMP2 knockdown. These results indicate that fucoidan induces osteoblast differentiation through BMP2-Smad 1/5/8 signaling by activating ERK and JNK, elucidating the molecular basis of the osteogenic effects of fucoidan in hABM-MSCs.

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