[Allgrove syndrome]

A Alakeel, C Raynaud, M Rossi, P Reix, D Jullien, A-L Souillet
Annales de Dermatologie et de Vénéréologie 2015, 142 (2): 121-4

BACKGROUND: Allgrove syndrome or "Triple A syndrome" involves adrenal insufficiency as a result of resistance to adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), achalasia and alacrima, often associated with neurological signs. Herein, we report a new case of this rare genetic disease, which is of interest because of its dermatological mode of discovery.

PATIENTS AND METHODS: A 4-year-old child, born to parents related by first-degree consanguinity, presented oral hyperpigmentation and diffused acquired melanoderma, as well as long-standing dry-eye syndrome. Laboratory tests confirmed low adrenal insufficiency. The combination of alacrima and adrenal insufficiency prompted screening for Allgrove syndrome, which was confirmed by genetic analysis showing homozygous c.1331+1G>A mutation within intron 14 of the gene encoding for ALADIN protein. Both parents were heterozygous for the same mutation. Two years later, the onset of vomiting raised concerns about achalasia, which was confirmed by oesophageal manometry. The child received symptomatic treatment consisting of supplementary hydrocortisone and oesophageal dilatation.

DISCUSSION: The present case serves as a reminder that Allgrove syndrome may be diagnosed by dermatologists. Therapy is cross-disciplinary, being based upon medical treatment for adrenal insufficiency with prescription of artificial tears in the event of alacrima. Achalasia is treated by oesophageal dilatation or by surgery.

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