Echocardiographic evaluation of diastolic dysfunction in rheumatoid arthritis - a case-control study

Abhishek Sharma, Reshma Kaushik, Rajeev Mohan Kaushik, Rajesh Kakkar
Modern Rheumatology 2015, 25 (4): 552-7

OBJECTIVES: To assess left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (LVDD) and its predictors in rheumatoid arthritis (RA).

METHODS: This cross-sectional case-control study assessed 100 RA patients and 100 healthy controls for LVDD by M-mode, two-dimensional, colour Doppler echocardiography.

RESULTS: RA patients had higher prevalence of LVDD than controls (43% vs. 14%; p < 0.001). LVDD had significant association with duration (p = 0.033), severity of disease activity (p < 0.0001), Steinbrocker stage and functional class (p < 0.0001 each) and non-adherence to treatment (p = 0.047). Peak of late diastolic (A) mitral flow velocity and isovolumic relaxation time (IVRT) were higher (p < 0.05 each), whereas left ventricular ejection fraction, peak of early diastolic (E) mitral flow velocity and E/A ratio were lower (p < 0.05 each) in RA patients than in controls. Deceleration time (DT) was not significantly different in the two groups (p = 0.623). E/A ratio had significant correlation with anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody (ACPA) (r = 0.233, p = 0.019) and age (r = 0.203, p = 0.042). IVRT had significant negative correlation with ACPA (r = -0.196, p = 0.044), while DT had significant correlation with Disease Activity Score with 28-joint (DAS28) counts (r = 0.244, p = 0.014). ACPA was an independent predictor of E/A ratio (p = 0.031). DAS28 was the only independent predictor of LVDD (odds ratio [OR] = 6.01; p = 0.007).

CONCLUSIONS: LVDD occurred commonly in RA patients and depended on severity of disease activity.

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