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Attenuation of inflammatory-mediated neurotoxicity by Saururus chinensis extract in LPS-induced BV-2 microglia cells via regulation of NF-κB signaling and anti-oxidant properties

Byung-Wook Kim, Sushruta Koppula, Shin-Young Park, Jin-Woo Hwang, Pyo-Jam Park, Ji-Hong Lim, Dong-Kug Choi
BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2014 December 16, 14: 502

BACKGROUND: A Saururus chinensis Baill (SC) has been used by Native Americans, early colonists and practitioners of Korean traditional medicine for treating several diseases including cancer, rheumatoid arthritis and edema. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of SC extract in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated neuroinflammatory responses in BV-2 microglial cells.

METHODS: The effects of SC on the LPS-induced neuroinflammatory responses in BV-2 microglial cells were assessed by Western blotting, RT-PCR and immunofluorescence labeling techniques. DPPH and alkyl radical scavenging assay was performed to evaluate the anti-oxidant effects. Comparisons between groups were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance followed by Dunnett's multiple comparisons test using GraphPad Prism V5.01 software.

RESULTS: Pre-treatment with SC extract (1, 5 and 10 μg/mL) significantly (p < 0.001 at 10 μg/mL) and concentration dependently inhibited LPS-induced production of nitric oxide (NO), inducible NO synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and suppressed the inflammatory cytokine levels such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin (IL)-6 in BV-2 microglial cells (p < 0.001 at 10 μg/mL). Further, SC suppressed the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activation by blocking the degradation of IκB-α. SC also exhibited profound anti-oxidant effects by scavenging 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) (IC50: 0.055 mg/mL) and alkyl radicals (IC50: 0.349 mg/mL). High performance liquid chromatography finger printing analysis of SC revealed quercetin (QCT) as one of the major constituents compared with reference standard. QCT also inhibited the excessive release of NO, and inhibited the increased expressional levels of IL-6, iNOS and COX-2 in LPS-stimulated BV-2 cells.

CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicated that SC inhibited the LPS-stimulated neuroinflammatory responses in BV-2 microglia via regulation of NF-κB signaling. The antioxidant active constituents of SC might be partly involved in delivering such effects. Based on the traditional claims and our present results SC can be potentially used in treating inflammatory-mediated neurodegenerative diseases.


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