Galectin-8 predicts postoperative recurrence of patients with localized T1 clear cell renal cell carcinoma

Yidong Liu, Le Xu, Yu Zhu, Weijuan Zhang, Weisi Liu, Haiou Liu, Jiejie Xu
Urologic Oncology 2015, 33 (3): 112.e1-8

BACKGROUND: Galectin-8 (Gal-8), belonging to a family of the "tandem repeat"-type galectins that contain 2 carbohydrate recognition domains, serves to retain cell surface residency and signaling of glycoproteins including cytokine and growth factor receptors, and thereby promoting development and progression of various malignancies. This study aims to evaluate the effect of Gal-8 expression on postoperative recurrence of patients with localized pathologic T1 (pT1) clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC).

PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this retrospective study, we enrolled 244 patients (122 in group A and 122 in group B) with localized pT1 ccRCC undergoing nephrectomy at a single institution. Specimens from patients were collected from January 2003 to December 2008. Median follow-up was 71 months (range: 12-120 mo) in group A and 70 months (range: 12-119 mo) in group B. Overall, 14 patients experienced recurrence in group A (n = 122) and 22 patients had recurrence in group B (n = 122). Gal-8 expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry in clinical specimens. Kaplan-Meier method with log-rank test was performed to compare survival curves. Cox regression models were used to evaluate the prognostic values of variables on recurrence-free survival. Concordance index was calculated to assess prognostic accuracy.

RESULTS: In both groups, patients with high expression of Gal-8 were significantly inclined to have high rates of necrosis. High Gal-8 expression indicated early recurrence of patients with localized pT1 ccRCC. Gal-8 expression was determined to be an independent adverse prognostic indicator for recurrence. The accuracy of The Mayo Clinic Stage, Size, Grade, and Necrosis score and University of Los Angeles Integrated Staging System prognostic models was improved when Gal-8 expression was added.

CONCLUSIONS: Gal-8 expression is a potential independent unfavorable prognostic indicator for postoperative recurrence of patients with localized pT1 ccRCC.

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